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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following are key components of any definition of languages
All of the above
Which of the following is NOT a universal aspect of language?
all language have BOTH speech and written versions
____ are much better at idneitfuing lvoed ones by their smell; ____ are better at transmitting and receiving information through facial expressions
Women; women
The fact that language itself is the primary barrier to communication and that linguistice competence is often very difficult are to of the most _____ aspects of language
paradoxical
the average perons know something link
50,000 words
The design feature means that as long as individual words are familiar to a listener, any combnation, even if never before heard can be understood
openness
This design feature means referring to things that are not present, such as thinds that are happening elsewhere, that heppened in the past, or that will happen in the future
displacement
This design feature means that there is seldom a link between a symbol and a meaning in human language
arbitrariness
This design feature refers to the addoicationof linguistic signlas with acpects of social, cultural, and physical worlds of a speech community
semanticity
This design feature meawns not only do people represent themselves falsely, but also language can be meaningless
prevarication
What is the geographic distribution of Indo-European lanaguages and how many INdo-European languages are there?
Iceland to India; about 100
What do linguistc call the language that gave rise to modern Indo-European languages
Proto-INdo-European
What proportion of the world's population speaks an INdo-European language?
half of the world's populations
To what language family do the languages of East Asia belong?
SIno-Tibetan
What are some of the categories of terms that linguists first included in their thesaurus of Sino-Tibetan languages
all of the above
Why is it difficult to decide whether the Thai language is moire closely related to Sino-Tibetan or Austronesian?
all of the above
What did Joseph Greenberg conclude about the place of origin and subsequent dispersal of Bantu languages
he hypothesized that the Bantu language familyt had spread from the ares of eastern NIgeria throughout all of what is now southern Africa
What subsistence pattern was used by the Mongol hordes led by Genghis Khan
pastoralism
What three language families are there in the Americas
Eskimo-Aleut, Na-Dene, And Amerind
Why had the language of the Basque people baffled scholars?
because the language of the BASque people is a language isolate, and orphan among languages with no known relatives
Anthropoloigsts recognize four main catergories of subsistence strategies
horticulture, intensive argiculture, foraging, and pastoralism
Pastoralism, horticulture, and intensive agriculture are all forms of
food production
_____ was the subsistence strategy that all humans used to get food for probably >90% of our existence.
foraging
Historically known foragers lived in what we called _____ areas, where is it difficult if not impossible to use modern ____ technologies
marginal; agricultural
Inuit, Okiek, Ainu, and Asutralian aborigines are examples of living _____f
hunter-gatherers
Which of the following generalizations does NOT apply to foragers
foraging communities generally have different classes of people
When did domestication of plants first occur?
about 10,000 years ago
The pattern of subsistence in which humans grow crops without the aid of irrigation, fertilizer, or animals/machines for plowing is called _______
horticulture
Why do Melanesisan men dive from platforms
to insure a good harvest of yams
What subsistence pattern did the Khmer kings use to build Angkor Wat?
intensive agriculture
What new and powerful institution developed in societies that use intensive agriculture
the market
What is ethnocentrism
the belief in the righteousness of your own ways- that your own ways are the best while the ways of others are inferior
What is the primary cause of human diversity?
culture- each culture finds its own solution to problems of survival
What is enculturation
the process wherby the personality requirements of each society are transmitted from one generations to the next
What id Margaret Mead conclude from her sudies of cross-cultural patterns of child-rearing in Samoa, the United States, and elsewhere?
that sex roles are cultrally learned (not biologically determined) and that adolescence in Samoa, where cultural attitudes about sex are casual, is not characterized by tension and rebellion (as it is in the U.S.)
Can we seperate the dancer from the dance? That is can we distiguish the characteristics of an individual's personailt fomr their culture?
NEVER
What is the bsasis of marraige in western society and how does this differ from the fundamental bonds in other societies?
unpredicatbale romantic love (western societies) vs. the more stable kin group ( other societies)
Many American don't think very much about ____ (how we reckon wich people are our relatives)>
marriage and family
The fact that American kinship tends to be centered on the nuclear family has two important consequences
most of our interactions are with people who are not related to us AND we enjoy greater mobility than people wit hother kniships systems, many of which require young married couple ot live in the family compounds of their close relatives
IN most societies, kinships determines to a great extent the primary aspects of your life, including your
all of the above
When a nanthropologist refers to kinship, they really mean social relationships involving
all of the above
The most basic division of knship systems is between
bilateral descent systems and unilaterla descent systems
In a bilateral kin group, people claim to be related to each other
through ties either from the mother's side or the father's side to a common ancestor
At the center of a ____ is a single person called EGO. In this system, which includes all recognized relatives on Ego's father's and mother's sides , we do not consider ourselves related to all the relatives of some of our relatives.
bilateral kindred
Bilateal descent groups are ____ while unilateral decsent groups are _____.
mainly restricted to North America and Europe; found all over the world
A person living in a ____ such as the Trobriang Islands in Melanesia would fin it very mausing that we use the same term for a girl's uncle on her mother's side and a girl's uncle on her father's side
metrilineal descent systems
The ____ kinship terminology system is very complicated; it occurs in societies that have a lot of political complexity, class stratification, and occupational specialization
Sudanese
The Iroquis kinship terminology system is amazingly complicated when it gets to cousin. Both sets of cross cousin are referred to by the same term but distinguished by sex. Parallel cousins, on the other hand, are often referred to by the same terms that you would use to refer to your own brother or sister. A large part of the reasion for this is that
marriage to cross-cousins is allowed and sometimes even encouraged while marraige to parallel cousins is forbidden
The ____ kinship terminology system occurs in many patrilineal societies all over the world and is characterized by merging of generation. IN this system, the same term is used for father and father'se brother. Mother, mother's sisters, and mother's brother's daughter are all called the same thing.
Omaha
Marraige
a & c ONLY
Which of the following correclty depicts the social organization of the Nayar people or SW India.
land is owned by a group of kinsmen related though the female line
Which of the following states of marriage and relationships among the Nayar people is considered by them to be marriage
a young woman has a continuing sexual relationship witha aman; this relationship is approved by the families of the young oman and the manl the man gives the young woman gifts three times a year.
The social organization of the Nayar
a & c oNLY
What is deined by the following: a residential kin group composed of a woman, her dependent children and at least one adult male joined through marraiage or blood relationship
family
What categories of families are recognized by anthropologists
all of the above
Which marraige custom involves a widow marrying the brother of her dead husband?
sororate
Which marriage custom make sense when property is retained within the male line of descent?
patrilineal parallel-cousin marriage
Which marriage ucstom makes sense if descent is traced exclusively through the female line but property and other rights pass from a man to his sister's son
martilineal cross-cousin marriage
Which system of obiligation invloed a designated period of time after marrage during which the groom works for the bride's family
bride service
Which system of obligation, common among the peoples of Eurasia, involves payment of a woman's inheritance at hte times of her marriage, either to her or to her husbamd
dowry
Which system of obligation, common among the peoples of Africa, involves compensation paid by the groom or his family to the bride's family upon marriage?
bride price
How do Kawelka gain status
by giving this away
Why are pigs so important
because they are used as wealth and status
What are the living arrangments of hte Kawelka? Where fo the Men, WOMEN, and children love? WIth whom do the pigs live?
men live in houses that are separate from those occupied by women and children - the pigs live with the women and children
Does Ongka have any authority over his fellow tribesmen? If not, what does he do to get pigs from his friends and relatives
NO- he pesters and harangues them
The following is an important aspect of culture
all of THESE
Cultural relativism is ____
the viewpoint that behavior is one culture should not be jugded by the standards of another culture
A mechanism of cultural change in which the exchange of cultural features results from groups having continuous firsthand contact with each other
is diffusion
What is an ethnic group
members of a culture that share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because their common background
A small, egalitarian society whose members neither farm nor herd, but depend on wild plant food resources, is called a
band
A hierarchical, stratified society in which some groups permanently monopolize wealth, power, and presige is called a
state
An egaliarian society whose members rely on such forms of subsistence as horticulture or pastoralism is called a
tribe