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65 Cards in this Set

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36. homologous chromosome
features we have in common or carry the same trait

ex. each pair of chromosomes are homologus
Mitocondria
"powerhouse"
oblong organelle where ATP production occurs for cellular energy.
Ribosomes
"workbench"
small structures made of proteins and RNA

"reads" RNA strand during protein syntesis
25. gamete
Sex Cells
76. zygote
fertilized egg
Where does the zygote get its chromosomes from?

How many does it get?
23 from the mother and 23 from the father
45. mitosis
somatic cells divide to produce more somatic cells
44. meiosis
sex cell divison
Does the number of chromosomes give any indication how advanced they are?
no
14. diploid
two sets of 23 chromosomes
31. haploid
1 set of chromosomes
4. autosomes
chromosomes 1-22 (all but the st which is a gametes
What is the 23 chromosome for a female or 63. sex chromosome
X X
What is the 23 chromosome for a male or 63. sex chromosome
X Y
Describe or diagram the process of DNA replication
1. enzymes unzip the double helix by breaking hydrogen bonds b/w bases

2. 2 DNA strands separate exposing the bases

3. bases attract DNA nucleotides bond appropriately to bases

4. then winds together at the bottom while still unwinding from the bottom
20. exon
spliced together to make mRNA
they are the expressed region
20. intron
"junk DNA" are removed to make mRNA
They are between the Exons segments
Which type of RNA is formed during transcription?
mRNA
What is transcription?
When DNA turns (transcribes) into RNA
3 types of RNA
mRNA - messenger RNA (taxi from nucleus to ribosome)

tRNA - transfer RNA

rRNA - ribosomal RNA
somatic cell characteristics
diploid, all cells except sex cells such as bone cells etc.
Name the 2 types of chromosomes.
Autosomes 1-22

Gametes 23rd
What is the RNA copy called?
mRNA
What are the steps for protein synthesis?
1. transcription

2. translation
What are the 5 steps of Transcription?

week 2 slide 13
1. the first tRNA attaches to the mRNA (messenger)at the 1st (start codon)

2. Ribosomes move along the mRNA strand and next tRNA joins

3. amino acids attached to tRNA 1 binds to the amino acid from tRNA 2

4. tRNA 1 then leaves the ribosome

5. tRNA is read in groups called anticodons
How is mRNA and tRNA related?
mRNA is complimentary to tRNA

mRNA has codons

tRNA had anticodons
Advantages of the pea plant
1. cross polinate

2. short times between generation to see a long family tree

3. easy to grow

4. closed flower

5. simple genome
What is a chromosome?
nuclear bodies made of DNA coiled around proteins
What is DNA? What is it composed of?
deoxyribonucleic acid, composed of bases, phosphate, and sugar molcules
Law of Segregation
only one particle from each parent is passes on or segregated to the offspring
20. exon
spliced together to make mRNA
they are the expressed region
20. intron
"junk DNA" are removed to make mRNA
They are between the Exons segments
Which type of RNA is formed during transcription?
mRNA
What is transcription?
When DNA turns (transcribes) into RNA
3 types of RNA
mRNA - messenger RNA (taxi from nucleus to ribosome)

tRNA - transfer RNA

rRNA - ribosomal RNA
somatic cell characteristics
diploid, all cells except sex cells such as bone cells etc.
Name the 2 types of chromosomes.
Autosomes 1-22

Gametes 23rd
What is the RNA copy called?
mRNA
What are the steps for protein synthesis?
1. transcription

2. translation
What are the 5 steps of Transcription?

week 2 slide 13
1. the first tRNA attaches to the mRNA (messenger)at the 1st (start codon)

2. Ribosomes move along the mRNA strand and next tRNA joins

3. amino acids attached to tRNA 1 binds to the amino acid from tRNA 2

4. tRNA 1 then leaves the ribosome

5. tRNA is read in groups called anticodons
How is mRNA and tRNA related?
mRNA is complimentary to tRNA

mRNA has codons

tRNA had anticodons
Advantages of the pea plant
1. cross polinate

2. short times between generation to see a long family tree

3. easy to grow

4. closed flower

5. simple genome
What is a chromosome?
nuclear bodies made of DNA coiled around proteins
What is DNA? What is it composed of?
deoxyribonucleic acid, composed of bases, phosphate, and sugar molcules
Law of Segregation
only one particle from each parent is passes on or segregated to the offspring
Law of Inheritance
characters are passed as unaltered "particles" from parental generation (P1) to future generations NOT MIXED OR BLENDED!
What cell division process, meiosis or mitosis, shows Mendel's Law of segregation and why?
Meiosis because one particle get passed on by mom's egg and the new homologus partner comes from fathers sperm
Law of independent assortment
alleles segregate and can pair with any other trait allele
recessive allel
one that will be masked or hidden by the presence of another, different allele
How MUST recessive allelels be expressed?
homozygotes rr gg etc.
What is heterozygous?
different alleles together or different traits such as Rr
WHat is homozygous?
the same trait with the same trait such as RR and rr
the locus is the ________
address of the trait on the allele
T or F:

Autosomal dominant can be a carrier?
False autosomal dominant has to be RR or Rr and carrier is rr only
autosomal dominant diseases?
achondroplasia (dwarfism)

Huntingtons
Autosomal recessive diseases?
Born to unaffected parents (aa)

PKU

Cystic Fibrosis
X-linked recessive diseases?
almost always males
born to unaffected parents
colorblindness

Hemophilia

Fragile X
X-linked dominant disease?
Coffin Lowery, Pigmenti
Law of independent assortment
expression of one trait is independent of the other trait
What did John Dalton study?
colorblindness and did a family pedigree
What did Achibald Garrod study?
1. Albinism, pentosuria, cystinuria(kidney stones), Alkaptoruria (tyosine dark pee)
What does pleiotropic traits?
Gene affects more than one trait
What is gene flow? 2 examples
mixes gene pool through the exchange of genes b/w populations
1. migration back and forth
2. hybridization by both pop's fucking
WHat is the gene pool
all the genes and variations in a population
Major players in diversity and evolution
John Ray (classification system), Linnaeus (father of taxonomy