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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
system used to organise living things
taxonomy
taxonomy developed by:
Carl Linnaeus
group of related organisms at some heirarchical level
clade
graphic depiction of evolutionary relationships and histories of related taxa with a temporal depth
phylogenetic tree
method of classification based on shared derived characteristics
cladistics
trait new to a taxon and not seen in LCA
derived (synapomorphic
trait shared with LCA
primitive (plesiomorphic) or ancestral
graphic depiction of evolutionary relationships, NO time scale
cladogram
hypothetical LCA on a tree
node
taxa more closely related to each other than any other taxa
sister taxa
taxon that is not part of the clade in question, usually sister taxon to the clade as a whole
outgroup
way to decide between two hypothesis to choose the simplest
parsimony
trait shared between two or more taxa because they shared a LCA
homology
trait shared between two ore more taxa that was independently derived by both
homoplasy
shared traits of primates (13)
-arboreal
-post-orbital wall
-stereoscopic vision
-vision
-flat faces (reduced prognathism)
-prehensile hands
-opposable thumbs
-nails
-single offspring
-long infant dependence
-intelligence
-brains
-complex behavior
two suborders of Primate family
prosimii, anthropoidea
family of prosimii
tarsiidae
two infraorders of Anthropoidea
platyrrhini (new world), catarrhini (old world and apes)
superfamilies of catarrhini
cercopithecoidea (old world), hominoidea (apes)
distinctive characteristics of prosimians (6)
tooth comb, 2133/2133, nocturnal, arboreal, insectivores, complete post-orbital bar
characteristics of tarsiers (4)
unfused mandible, claws, partially enclosed eye orbit, 2133/1133
characteristics of new world monkeys (6)
2133/2133, post-orbital wall, smaller, less sexually dimorphic, prehensile tails, arboreal
characteristics of old world monkeys (5)
2123/2123, leaf eaters, ground-dwelling, post-orbital wall, bilophodont molars
characteristics of apes (5)
loss of tail, orthogrady, long arms, body size large, 2123/2123
5 general of apes
Hylobates (gibbons), Pongo (orangutans), Pan (chimps and bonobos), Gorilla (gorilla), Homo (humans)
more closely related to each other than any other taxa
monophyletic