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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 million yrs ago
[[#.5, ARDiPITHecus; 2.5 sill 4 million yrs, AustraloPithecus. ]]
1) Ar. ramidus 2) A. anamensis 3) A. afarensis
(AAA; ram, ana, afa)
3 million yrs ago
4) P. aethiopicus
5) A. afaricanus
6) A. garhi
(PAA; ae, af, g)
2 million yrs ago
[[7.5, ParanThropus]]
7) P. boisei
8) P. robustus
9) H. rudalfensis 10) H. ergaster
11) H. habilis
(PPHHH; boisei, robust, rudal, ergaster, habil)
1 million yrs ago

.5 million yrs ago
12) H. erectus

13) H. heidelbergensis
Present Day
14) H. neaderthalensis
15) H. sapiens
Flow chart (Tattersall)
123<4(7,8) 5 6

Between 5 and 6: <9 and 11.
Between 9 and 11: <10-12<13 (14, 15), ?
Great Chain of Being: Ranking
hierarchy and unilinear (ex. Divine/angels, whites, (African Americans, apes) insects) Continuity of life.
Pattern (Linnaeus, Classification system from kingdom to species
Great Chain of Being: Ranking
Process: Lamarck: spontaneous generation and then becomes more complex. Discussed orign of Linneaus’ Pattern, two ideas:
1) Creatures could change over life-time without disuse of faculties. Pass on traits, but Incorrect because we cannot pass on traits not originally inherited.
2) Natural selection; mutation and change in species.
Darwin: Improvements only for certain environments. Change without progress; just divergence/adaptation to an environment. Genes passed on.
Cannot rank; depends on your environment.
Great Chain of Being: Ranking
Great Chain of Being-can’t rank, it depends on environment. All species that could exist, do exist. Change, but without progress. Pattern, process. Linnaeus- classification (genus, phylum, species). Way of grouping things from general to specific. Lamarck-life spontaneously generates. Bodily structures will change in response to how they’re used. If used, passed on to offspring for that purpose. Use and disuse, inherit and acquire traits. Darwinian evolution- change over time. Natural selection, environment favor certain trait. Increase in frequency over time, survival of the fittest. Great Chain of being suggested hierarchical, as opposed to evolution which proposed changed without progress, just different.
Not a good biological categorization, but strong social fact
Folk heredity makes race a non-accurate part of nature. Distinguish folk heredity from biological/scientific stance. One –drop rule: one drop of African blood, considered a slave. Connects blood, which we associate with genes, to biology.
Taxonism- categories 3-5 groups according to race (body type). Not true, genetic categorization(individual to population) 85% individual, 9%population, 6% races
Not a good biological categorization
Goodman explains that race is continuous and nonconcordant, meaning that geographical differences account for genetic variation among humans and traits vary independently making “race only skin deep.” Furthermore, Lewontin’s statistical analyses have shown that race accounts for only 6 percent of total human variation. As a classification system, race is inconsistent with no set definitions or scales. Genetic variation occurs within a population; most variation is local. Variation is gradual with respect to geography. Race is minute impacts of geographical locations. Sickle cell anemia does not support biological theory. It is based on location, not race ( Greeks have it as well as African Americans).
Not a good biological categorization
Essentialism- defining individuals by reference to a group. Geographically, people lost hair, most skin was exposed, vitamin D so to prevent cancer, their skin darkened.
(Sapir article) Three of the words are radical and concrete
Two are derivational
Eight are relational
Concrete (3)
First subject
Second subject
Derivational (2): Agentive
Derivational Diminutive
(Sapir article)
concrete 1-3, 1) 1st sub, 2) 2nd sub 3) activity (Derivational) 4) agentive 5) diminutive (relational) 6) reference: definitiveness of first subject 7) ref: defin of second sub 8) declarative 9) subjectivity 10)objectivity 11) singularity of first sub 12) singularity of second sub 13) time: present
Personal relations, 9 and 10
Declarative (8)
Position in sentence, personal relations. (farmer before duckling). 8) modality, declarative, (subject plus verb), implied by suffix –s
Derivational concepts
agentive, suffix -er
diminutive, suffix -ling
reference. Other:
how definite the first subject (the) is; how definite the reference
of the second subject (second the) is.
Neuter and genders in other languages. Yana specifies the speaker knows the action to be true. German specifies gender, and subjective versus objective.
Creole combines French, Spanish, and African culture. Poetry captures sentiments/hybridity better than definitions or anthropology. Hard to define because of diverse ethnic mix, forming new culture.
Ideological, political
problem is race in American culture is considered binary-black vs. white. One drop rule. We cannot conceptualize mixture, and mixed culture that is included. Political-reflects poorly on government’s reaction-give aid internationally, but cannot help in timely manner when domestic disaster occurs. New Orleans is considered not to be “white” city; implications that not helped as much as would have had it been a white city, becomes a racist argument.
Also reflects poorly on “black” culture, all the violence in the city after Katrina.
Katrina erases unique Creole culture and the social mixture, turns it into a black and white situation. Erases daily trends, instead imposing binary system. New Orleans is not culturally harmonious, trying to make it black and white. Not white and therefore less aide.
No such thing as natural disaster, from anthropological perspective. We predicted it would happen, could have been prevented to extent of destruction.
Race makes the event; New Orleans continually floods since founding by French in 1700s; always another “worst natural disaster in US history.” In 1927 they drowned the east of city on purpose to save the rest of the city; this is where the African Americans live and had to be evacuated. The wetlands were reduced for businesses even though they helped to reduce flooding. **Understood as a Black city and therefore race made Katrina. New Orleans is an “othered” place, as if primitive.
Lack of preparation and response.
- How language and culture play into memory. Place: something specific imbued with cultural meaning or Moral Order serving different cultural ends.
Place-making: universal tool of historical imagination. Remembering leads to imagining the past using historical materials, making them useable/relevant to the present.
Materiality: places and objections; Fixed; endures; objects used as sites of intense memory.
Provide a Framework for memory: “It happened at. . .”
Past as Fluid (past remade; less static) vs facts and academic history.
Memory must be Contextual with local Place as an Anchor. We never know exactly what happened anyway. Order inscribed in landscape.
Shows how words and places can act on people. For example, competence: tone, pitch, gestures, etc. Three categories of speech for Apache: ordinary talk, prayer, and narrative story (myth, historical tales, saga, and gossip)
Girl with Curlers.
Grandmother tells story of Apache policeman living at Cibecue at Men Stand Above Here and There, arresting an Apache for killing a white man’s cow; bewitched for betraying his community. He tried to report him to head officer several times, but became stupid and forgetful; but should have not done it in the first place. Trying to be white, unacceptable. The granddaughter had just worn hair in curlers to a ceremony where it was supposed to worn down. People disapproved, but did not approach her about this. Later on, the grandmother tells the story and the granddaughter leaves because story upsets her, she does not like people talking about her.
Girl with Curlers.
A few years later, she is with Basso and sees place (men stand above here and there) mentioned in story and says it “I know that place; it stalks me everyday”. Place/landscape: seeing the town from the story reminds her of her own going against her culture. Enforces moral order. Place serves as physical reminder for own mistakes, bad actions. Who tells the story: socially acceptable for grandmother, b/c she is in family. Telling story analogous to granddaughter acceptable way to convey point. Story enables us to imagine psychological impact on person directed to. Produce quick effect on individuals to correct behavior. *Moral order Reinforcing the landscape and vice versa.. Moral corrections.
Metaphor for life; competitive and chaotic. “name” is status.
All competing to be a Khan (situational, petty nobles, not permanent or inherited, can fade); hold Buzkashi to raise “name.”
Fourth order of competition is politics.
Framing is established basis for interpretation: It’s a game; not real conflict but brothers competing, displaying political structure.
- Hold Buz. by having a Tooi (circumcision/initiation to adulthood). . .surrounding it is a larger festival focusing on Buz; two to four days.
If Buzkashi successful, name has more political status. If fails, you will not necessarily advance politically.
Need power before hosting. On his own, Tooiwala plays role of generous host. His closest advisors are Tooi-bashi running things, speaksto households and neighbors (Kresh) doing all work such as cooking.
Invite Mehmanders: nearby prominent people, if come they will find a place by table, toast, and may agree to host.
Qarajai (provincial) vs. Tudabarai (tooi/khan, tooi-wala)(national) Politics is evident because it gets name publicized. Society is completely status driven; at dinner parties, sit according to rank. Makes Buzkashi even more important, status is such an important part of their culture. Tooi-wala is the generous host, and tooi-bashi is the closest advisor, who runs things. Household-khesh. Mehmandars are invited to house to act as hosts, negotiate hosting, or whom they host. Gifts are called shenak.
Local: Name recognition vs. by State (more ordered, government sponsored, announcer, “the honorable. . .”, name still emphasized)
Success Example: Largest, received most money/gifts, high control of game, spoken about for two to three years afterwards.
Failure Example: Too old, weak structure, could not settle disputes, Khan left, had to find two other khans to help keep peace a few days later; name not remembered. ***Quitting game: a political act; tooibashi/wala not in control of game. Will not be able to organize new ventures; name peaked.
Four levels of competition
1) Within game between players 2) For control of game 3) Control of the tooi as a whole 4) Politics more generally, connection less obvious. Raise name if first three are successful. Tooibashi? rules if “successful” or not, possible arguments of judgment. Mediate disputes and asserts control.
Prizes awarded.
At parents knee is unconscious learning, defining culture. Learn culture as reality, to naturalize them.
Culture: Everything learned at your parent’s knee. Basic concepts of how the world works. Mostly unconscious. Each culture has its own historical path of development. Although the idea of cultural evolution lingers mostly implicitely (such as in National Geographic articles about going back in time to our ancestors by observing other groups of people), but anthropologists recognize now that there are Many cultures versus one.
Cultural evolution
is a single pathway; progressive; presumed certain traits go from nature to culture/civilization. The 19th century Victorian Anthropology is referenced but not only in the past. Savagery, Barbarism, Culture. Analogous to Great Chain of being; unilineal, progressive chain where everyone has certain rank according mostly upon race, and societal status. For example, ranking a group of people based upon technology.
Parents knee subconsciously influences everything a person believes; if parents believe one race is superior to another, children probably will hold the same beliefs.
Parents knee allows children to learn how things are in society on a first hand basis, as opposed to social evolution which teaches it as more of a social fact. Another example of Parents knee is Apache children learn stories and ideas about their culture from family members; becomes ingrained moral facts in their mind. Everything such as the distance between speakers is learned from our environment.