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117 Cards in this Set

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Hockett's theory of language evolution
2 steps: 1) blending (prelanguage); 2) duality of patterning
blending
when human ancestors began to produce new calls by combining 2 old ones
prelanguage
language of human ancestors through blending
duality of patterning
human ancestors acquired ability to produce arrangements of blended sounds
when did language emerge?
150,000 yrs ago w/ appearance of modern human beings
3 ways human language different from animal communication
conventionality, productivity, displacement
conventionality
association btwn meaningful sequence of sounds and an object, action, or idea
productivity
idea that humans can combine words and sounds into new meaningful utterances they have never before heard
displacement
ability of language to convey info about something not in immediate environment
critical period of language
up till 6-7 years in children
universal grammar
basic set of principles, conditions, and rules that form foundations of all languages; led by Noam Chomsky
descriptive/structural linguistics
study of structure and content of specific languages; language can be separated from social context
4 subsystems of language
phonology (system of sounds); morphology (system for creating words form sounds); syntax (system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences); semantics (system that relates words to meaning)
phones
any sound used as part of a human language
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
records different sounds in language
phoneme
smallest sound uit that distinguishes meaning w/in a given language
allophones
2 phones indicating same phoneme
morpheme
smallest unit of a language that has a meaning
bound morpheme
unit of meaning that must be associated w/another
free morpheme
can stand alone as a word
word
smallest part of sentence that can be said alone and still retain its meaning
isolating language
language with relatively few morphemes per word, fairly simple rules for combining them; ex: English, Chinese
agglutinating language
allows great number of morphemes per word and has highly regular rules for combinng them; ex: Turkish
synthetic language
words w/many morphemes and complex, highly irregular rules for combination; ex: Mohawk, Inuktitut
lexicon
total stock of words in a language
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
hypothesis that perceptions and understandings of time, space, and matter are conditioned by structure of a language
sociolinguistics
focuses on speech performance
dialects
grammatical constructions that deviate from those used by socially dominant group in society
pidgins
a language of contact and trade composed of features of original languages of 2 or more societies
creole
first language that is composed of elements of 2 or more different languages.
African American/Black Vernacular English (AAVE/BVE); Ebonics
form of English spoken by blacks, especially in rural or urban working-class backgrounds
African American/Black Vernacular English (AAVE/BVE); Ebonics
form of English spoken by blacks, especially in rural or urban working-class backgrounds
code switching
ability of speakers of multiple languages to move seamlessly between them
fields of nonverbal communication
artifacts, haptics, chronemics, proxemics, kinesics
code switching
ability of speakers of multiple languages to move seamlessly between them
haptics
study/analysis of touch
fields of nonverbal communication
artifacts, haptics, chronemics, proxemics, kinesics
chronemics
study of different ways cultures understand time and use it to communicate
haptics
study/analysis of touch
proxemics
study of cultural use of interpersonal space
chronemics
study of different ways cultures understand time and use it to communicate
proxemics
study of cultural use of interpersonal space
kinesics
study of body position, movement, facial expressions, and gaze
historical linguistics
concerned w/discovering histories of languages
kinesics
study of body position, movement, facial expressions, and gaze
comparative lingustics
science of documenting relationshiops between languages and grouping them into language factories
core vocabulary
list of 100 or 200 terms that designate things, actions, and activities, likely to be named in all the world's languages
glottochronology
statistical technique that linguists have developed to estimate date of separation of related languages
sex
biological difference between male and female
historical linguistics
concerned w/discovering histories of languages
comparative lingustics
science of documenting relationshiops between languages and grouping them into language factories
gender
cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences into socially meaningful categories that seem reasonable and appropriat
core vocabulary
list of 100 or 200 terms that designate things, actions, and activities, likely to be named in all the world's languages
androcentric
male-centered
glottochronology
statistical technique that linguists have developed to estimate date of separation of related languages
cultural construction of gender
idea that gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic, and political forces acting w/in each culture
sex
biological difference between male and female
gender
cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences into socially meaningful categories that seem reasonable and appropriat
androcentric
male-centered
cultural construction of gender
idea that gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic, and political forces acting w/in each culture
gender
cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences into socially meaningful categories that seem reasonable and appropriate
androcentric
male-centered
cultural construction of gender
idea that gender characteristics are result of historical, economic, and political forces acting w/in each culture
xanith
alternative gender role of Oman on the Saudi Arabian peninsula
two-spirit role
alternative gender role in native North America
mahu
alternative gender role in Tahiti
hijra
alternative gender role in India conceptualized as neither man nor woman
manhood puzzle
question of why in almost all cultures masculinity is viewed not as a natural state but as a problematic status to be won through overcoming obstacles
machismo
cultural construction of hypermasculinity as essential to male gender rol
gender role
cultural expectations of men and women in a particular society, including division of labor
gender hierarchy
ways in whch gendered activities and attributes are differentially valued and related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a society; not universal
private/public dichotomy
gender system in which women's status is lowered by their almost exclusive cultural identification with home and children, while men are identified with public, prestigious economic and politcal roles
religion
social process that helps to order society and provide its members with meaningful unity, peace of mind, and the degree of control over events they believe is possible
cosmology
system of beliefs that deals w/fundamental questions in religious and social order
sacred narratives
stories held to be holy and true by members of religious tradition; tell of historical events, heroes, spritis, and origin of all things
anthropomorphic
having human shape
zoomorphic
having animal shape
naturalism
endowing features of natural world, such as rivers and mountains, with spirit, soul, or other supernatural characteristics
anthropopsychic
having though processes and emotions similar to humans
god
named spirit who is believed to have created or to control some aspect of world
polytheism
belief in many gods
monotheism
belief in one god
trickster
supernatural entity that doe snot act in bet interest of humans
mana
religious powr or energy that is concentrated in idnividuals or objects
ritual
patterned act that involves manipulation of religious symbols
rite of passage
ritual that marks a person's transition from one status to another
separation
first stage of a rit of passage in which individuals are removed from their community or status
liminal
stage of ritual, particularly rite of passage, in which individuals are removed from community or status
reincorporation
3rd phase of rite of passage during which participants are returned to community w/new status
communitas
state of perceived solidarity, equality, unity among poeple sharing a religious ritual, often characterized by intense emotion
antistructure
socially sanctioned use of behvior that radically violates social norms; found in religious ritual
rite of intensification
ritual structured to reinforce values and norms of a community and to strengthen group identity
totem
animal, plant, or other aspect of natl. world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationship with members of a group
totemism
religious practices centered around totems
prayer
any communication between people and spirits or gods in which people praise, plead, or request w/o assurance of results
sacrifice
offering made to increase efficacy of prayer or the religious purity of indiv.
magic
religious ritual believed to prouce mechanical effect by supernatural means; believers think it must have desired effect if done correctly
imitative magic
belief that imitating an action in a religious ritual will cause the action to happen in material world (ex: voodoo)
contagious magic
belief thta things once in contact w/person or object retain invisible connection w/that person or object
divination
religious ritual performed to find hidden objects or information
scapulomancy
divination using shoulder blade of animal
shaman
indiv. socially recognized as having ability to medite btw world of humanity and world of gods or spirits, but who i snot recognized official of any religious organization
vision quest
practice common among many Native America groups in which individuals seek to achieve direct contact w/supernatural
pharmacopoeia
collection of preparations used as medications
priest
formally elected/appointed to full-time religious office
witchcraft
ability to harm others by harboring malevolent thoughts about them; practice of sorcery
sorcery
conscious and intentional use of magic
Wiccan/neopagan
member of new religion that claims descent from pre-Christian nature worship; modern-day witchcraft
nativism
religious movement that aims to resotr ea golden age believed to have existed in past
vitalism
religious movement that looks toward creation of utopian future that does not resemble a golden past
revitalization movement
movement that proposes society can be improved through adoption of set of new religious beliefs
messianic
focusin on coming of individual who will usher in a utopian world
millenarian
one who believes that a coming catastrophe will signal the beginning of a new age and the eventual establishment of paradise
syncretism
merging of elements of 2 or more religious traditions to produce a new religion
oricha
Yoruba deity identified w/a Catholic saint in Vodou and Santeria
Ghost Dance
Native American religious movement of late 19th century
Native American Church
religious revitalization movement among Native Americans, also known as Peyote religion