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80 Cards in this Set

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Did Radcliffe-Brown think that functionalism was rooted in biology?
No- that was Malinowski who thought that different parts of society functioned to meet biological needs
Who was influenced by Durkheim's "organic analogy?"
Radcliffe-Brown
Who wrote "On the Concept of Function in the Social Sciences"
Radcliffe-Brown
Who did fieldwork in the Andamen islands, Australia and Africa?
Radcliffe-Brown
Who thought that kinship was the basis of social organization for non-Western societies that is best understood through psychology and cultural history?
Radcliffe-Brown (this refers to the genealogical method)
Did radcliffe-Brown think that society was unstable?
No - he thought that it was harmonious and stable (i.e.: synchronic)
What was a key area of study for Radcliffe-Brown?
social structure
Who promoted biocultural functionalism?
Malinowski
Who wrote "argonauts of the western pacific"?
Malinowski
What important anthropological tenet did Malinowski promote?
participant-observation
Who worked in the Trobriand Islands?
Malinowski
Who wrote about the Kula ring of exchange?
Malinowski
Who was a functionalist?
Malinowski
Who gave anthropology a new focus by stressing empirical research and rigorous theory?
Malinowski
Was Malinowski against "from magic to science"
Yes
Who founded the journal "Ethnology"
Murdock
What did Murdock search for among societies (generally)
Cross-Cultural generalizations
Who was a cultural materialist?
White
Which anthropologists were Neo Cultural Evolutionists?
Childe, Steward, White
Who wrote "Science of Culture" and "Evolution of Culture"?
White
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
that the universe is running down into entropy
Who put forth the layer cake model?
White
who 'discovered' both Marx and Morgan?
White
Who 'revisited' the Superorganic?
White
What did White call his nomothetic study of cultural laws?
culturology
Who said there are four major stages of cultural evolution?
White - tools, neolithic revolution, fossil fuels and atomic energy
who supported the idea of the primacy of culture over the individual?
White
Who thought that the symbol was the basis for culture?
White
Where do social and political organizations fit into the layer cake model?
in the middle - technology is at the bottom and ideology is at the top
Who is the 'father' of cultural ecology?
Steward
Was Steward close to Boas?
No - distant from him, probably because he was a Neo Cultural Evolutionist
Who promoted the idea of multilineal evolution? Who promoted unilineal evolution?
Steward - multilineal
White - unilineal
Did Steward agree with White?
No - he thought White was too extreme, and too general
What did White dislike about Steward?
that he was too particular
Who linked anthropology to nomothetic natural sciences like biology and chemistry
Steward
Did Steward think that adaption was key to cultural ecology?
Yes
What are the three types of Bands according to Steward?
Patrilineal, Matrilineal, Composite
Who demonstrated the regularities in the developmental sequences of civilization in the Western and Eastern Hemispheres?
Steward
Who recognized the relationship of sub-cultures to regional and national contexts
Steward
Who was a New Archaeologist?
Childe
Who wrote "society and knowledge"?
Childe
Was Childe American or British?
sort of trick question - he was Australian born but trained in Britain so British...
Who disagreed with racial interpretations of prehistory?
Childe
Who coined the term 'neolithic revolution'
Childe
Who was at the same time a social evolutionist and a diffusionist?
Childe
What theoretical position did Richards adhere to?
Functionalism?
Who was Richards a student of?
Malinowski
Who did work in Zambia with the Bemba?
Richards
Who looked at diet and nutrition and at food production?
Richards
Who studied the Bemba girls' initiation ceremony?
Richards
Who was a symbolic anthropologist?
Evans-Pritchard
Did Evans-Pritchard think that anthropology should be studied like a natural science?
Nope - he thought anthropology belonged in the humanities
Who did work among the Nuer and Azande?
Evans-Pritchard
What does Evans-Pritchard think hat the role of an ethnographer is?
to act as an interpreter of cultural meaning and history
Who promoted the concept of cultural relativism and thought that the capacity for a society to have logic was not limited to the western world?
Evans-Pritchard
Who is criticized for working in the 'colonial encounter'
Evans-Pritchard
Who is best known for their ethnographic monographs?
Evans-Pritchard
Did Evans-Pritchard promote theory over ethnography?
Nope - the other way around - ethnography first. Remember, he was known for his ethnographic monographs
Who wanted to understand how people accounted for misfortune?
Evans-Pritchard
Who wrote "Patterns of Culture"?
Benedict
Who did a national character study of Japan (at a distance)
Benedict
What three things did Benedict disagree with?
Freud, ethnocentrism and racism
Who campaigned against racism?
Benedict
Did Benedict describe the personalities of whole cultures, or of individuals?
Whole cultures - Mead described the latter
Who thought that concept of race to be 'weak'
Benedict
What is one criticism of Benedict?
that she makes broad generalizations
According to Benedict, the indiviuals within a culture reflect _________ configuartions.
Primary
Who developed methods for analyzing complex modern societies and cultures at a distance?
Benedict
What school did Sapir belong to?
Personality and culture
Did Sapir think that linguistic studies should look just at Indo-European languages?
Nope
Who did fieldwork among the Sarcee and Hopi?
Sapir
Who developed linguistic concept of Phonemes?
Sapir
Who, in particular, was a historical particularist?
Lowie
Who wrote "Primitive Society" and "History of Ethnological Theory"
Lowie
Did Lowie agree with Boas?
Yes, as a student of Boas, he also thought that there was no one determinant of culture
Who did fieldwork among the Native Americans, especially the Crow?
Lowie
Who studied kinship terminologies?
Lowie
Did Lowie think that ethnographic data was more important than theory, or the other way around?
Yes, Lowie thought that ethnographic data was indeed more important than theory
Which of the anthropologists we've studied were students of Boas?
Lowie, Sapir, Mead, Benedict, Steward, White and Kroeber
Which of the anthropologists we've studied were British?
Radcliffe-Brown, Malinowski, Childe, Evans-Pritchard and Richards