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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
COLONIES
Settlements of foreign nationals with controlling interests in indigenous territories
IMPERIALISM
Empire building through state expansion in both commerce and territory
EXPLOITATION COLONIES
Colonies established by military conquest for the purpose of exploiting the economic and natural reources of a region
MARITIME ENCLAVES
Colonies established as a result of sea trade and coastal exploration for the purpose of controlling tade at foreign ports.
SETTLEMENT COLONIES
Permamentn colonies established through exploration or conquest for the purpose of occupying land and controlling labor
RESETTLEMENT POLICIES
Efforts of colonial authorities to relocate indigenous people to permanent settlements, usually on less desirable land, to control and influence them
MISSIONISM
Settlement for the purpose of religious conversion
SLAVE TRADE
Buying and selling of people into servitude
FUR TRADE
Exchange of annual pelts or hides between Native American and colonists in exchange for European trade goods
DEPOPULATION
Reduction in population size as a result of war, conquest, colonization, or disease
ECOMIENDAS
Spanish landholding system in the American colonies that granted the use of land and the labor of any indigenous people on that land to soldiers, priests, and settlers
HACIENDAS
Estates made up of lands directly owned by Spanish settlers
MITA
Traditional Incan system of concripted labor for public works, adapted by the Spanish for use in obtaining indigenous workers for mines.
CUSTOMARY LAW
Selected aspects of native justice and jurisprudence codified into law by colonial authorities, mainly to secure greater control over indigenous populations
CASH ECONOMIES
Systems of exchnge based on the use of currency in modern markets
WHITE MAN'S BURDEN
Paternalistic, racist, colonial attitude that trated colonized peoples as inferiors in need of protection and instruction n how to liv
PACIFICATION
Colonial goal of forcing indigenous people to be peaceful and nonresistant so that settlers could safely inhavit their lands
RESERVATIONS
Land guaranteed by treaty for native residents' ownership and control.
NATIONALISM
Movement in independent states to build national identity, pride and unity
XENOPHOBIC
Having to do with fear, hatred, and envy of strangers, outsiders, or foreign-born minorities within the society
POSTCOLONIAL ERA
Period (roughly since 1965), following the independence of the last former European colonies as new nations under indigenous leadership and control
CULTURAL MINORITIES
Members of ethnic or cultural groups who have become minorities in their native lands due to migrations of other poeples into their territories or due to the historical configuration of a nation state made up of diverse groups.
LABOR MIGRATION
Migration of people from one area of a country to another or across national borders in search of jobs
TRIBALIZATION
A process of identification with one's tribal origins
TRANSNATIONALISM
Processes by which immigrants maintain social, economic, religious, and political ties to both their immigrant communities and their communities back home.
ISLAMIZATION
The process of imposing the Islamic religion and associated cultural values within a nation to foster cultural uniformity
GLOBAL IDENTITY
An identity of shared interests, practices, and values across international borders, uniting people worldwide
CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
Traditional practices of dispute and conflict resolution, involving mechanisms for mediation and negotiation and principles for punishment or restoration of community relations
ECOTOURISM
Visiting wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in order to enjoy a more pristine environment than found in urban life
POSITIVE SANCTIONS
Recognition and reqards for observing social norms
NEGATIVE SANCTIONS
Punishments for offending social norms.
INFORMAL SANCTIONS
Regards and punishments expressed through praise, ridicule, gossip, and the like.
FORMAL SANCTIONS
Rewards and punishments administered by persons in authority the state, or the law
DOMINANCE HIERARCHIES
In primate groups, social hierarchies established on the basis of sex and age
POST CONFLICT RECONCILIATION
Patterned behavior that occurs immediately after conflict has erupted and taken its course, to restore some measure of social harmony
CONFLICT AVOIDANCE
Prosocial behaviors, such as reconciliation, consolation, politeness, or apology, to repair social relationships without aggression
PEACEMAKERS
Individuals with a specialized social role of preventing conflict from reupting into dangerous combat.
DEFERENCE
nonthreatening verbal and noverbal behaviors that convey respect or subordination to others.
POLITENESS STRATEGIES
Behaviors designed to mute antagonisms and avoid overt hostility by affirming common bonds and recognizing another person's rights and feelings.
SONG DUELS
Inuit contests in which conflict is expressed and resolved through public response to music
WITHCRAFT
A belief system that functions a mechanism of social control by channeling anger toward others
VENGENACE
Aggresion against others based on the principle of revenge.
BLOOD FUED
Ongoing conflict between kin groups or communities, based on vengeance
WARFARE
Armed aggression and hostilities between groups