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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
choosing a mate based on natural variations in traits
sexual selection
person who came up with sexual selection
Darwin
two components of sexual selection
struggle between males to gain access to mates; struggle by a female to choose the right mate
differential reproductive success amon the members of the same sex within a given species
sexual selection
a difference in size, shape, or color between the sexes
sexual dimorphism
the possible offspring output by one sex
reproductive potential
a measure of variation from the mean of a population in the reproductive potential of one sex compared with the other
reproductive variance
notion largely discredited by the rise of Darwinian theory proposing that animals act for the good of their social group or of their species
group selection
principle that animals behave perferentially toward their genetic kin
kin selection
kin selection formulated by him
william hamilton
reproductive success of an organism plus the fitness of its close kin
inclusive fitness
field of study that incorporates the concepts of inclusive fitness and kin selection
sociobiology
small, arboreal, most nocturnal, long wet nose with whiskers, dental comb, eyes facing slightly sideways, large mobile ears, toilet claw on second toe
prosimians
mouse to cat sized, from madigascar
lemurs
slow moving; short or absent tail, from africa and asia and have large eyes
lorises
quick; cat sized; long tail; from africa and asia and have large eyes
galagos
squirrel sized, elongated ankle bones, long tail, large eyes, dry nose, vertical clinging and leaping, from S.E. Asian islands
tarsiers
larger brain, arboreal and terrestrial, most diurnal, dry nose, short face, small immobile ears, eyes face forward, no dental comb, foramen magnum under skull
anthropoids
monkeys and apes
anthropoids
central and south america, flat nosed, widely spread nostrils facing outward, prehensile tails, no estrus swellings, arboreal, quadrupedal
platyrrhines
new world monkeys and apes
platyrrhines
old world monkeys and apes
catarrhines
down nosed, narrow downward facing nostrils, no prehensile tails, estrus swellings, ischial callosites (sitting pads)
catarrhines
old world monkeys from africa and asia
cercopithecoids
sacculated stomachs, arboreal, leaf eaters, old world monkeys from africa and asia
colobines
apes
hominoids
tailless, chest broader than deep, forelimbs longer than hindlimbs
hominoids
the great apes
pongids
heavier apes from africa and asia
pongids
african knuckle walker
gorilla
humans, the peculiar apes
hominids
gorillas pans and pongos
pongids
hylobatids pongids and hominids
hominoids
cercopithecines and colobines
cercopithecoids
cercopithecoids and hominoids
catarrhines
lemuriforms lorisiforms and tarsiiforms
prosimians
platyrrhins and catarrhines
anthropoids
callitrichids and cebids
platyrrhines
typically omnivorous, mostly terrestrial, have cheek pouches
cercopithecines
macaques, baboons, mandrills, guenons, geladas
cercopithecines
orangutan genus
pongo
sumatra and borneo only, quadrumanual
pongo (orangutan)
african arboreal knuckle walkers
pan (chimpanzee)
from madagascar
lemuriforms
from SE asian islands
tarsiiforms
eats grubs out of tree with long finger
aye aye
All have small body size, three premolar teeth, and are arboreal
new world monkeys (platyrrhines)
mammals that produce without a placenta
metatheria
mammals that lay eggs to reproduce
prototheria
mammals that reproduce with a placenta and uterus
eutheria
infraorder of the order primates that includes the prosimians, excluding the tarsier
strepsirhine
infraorder of the order primates that includes the anthropoids and the tarsier
haplorhines
member of the primate suborder Prosimii that includes the lemurs, lorises, galagos, and tarsiers
prosimians
member of the primate suborder Anthropoidea that includes the monkeys, apes, and hominids
anthropoid
hypothesis for the origin of primate adaptation that focuses on the value of grasping hands and stereoscopic vision for life in the trees
arboreal hypothesis
hypothesis for the origin of primate adaptation that focuses on the value of grasping hands and stereoscopic vision for catching small prey
visual predation hypothesis
the parabolic arc that forms the upper or lower row of teeth
dental arcade
active at night
nocturnal
active in day
diurnal
part of brain that controls higher cognitive function; the cerebrum
neocortex
the life cycle of an organism from conception to death
ontogeny
group living, a fundamental trait of haplorhine primates
sociality
Infraorder of the order primates that is synonymous with the new world monkeys, or ceboids
Platyrrhini
grasping tail possessed by some species of the primate families Cebidae and Atelidae
prehensile tail
mating system in which one female mates with multiple males
polyandry
Infraorder of the order primates that includes the old world monkeys, apes and hominids
catarrhini
primates with downward facing nostrils
catarrhini
primates with flat shaped noses
platyrrhini
sitting pads
ischial callosities
double-ridged molar teeth
bilophodont molars
infanticide most commonly seen in this group
colobines
hormonally influenced period of sexual receptivity in some female mammals, which corresponds with timing of ovulation
estrus
one of the four great apes species: gorilla, chimp, bonobo, or orangutan
pongid
member of our own human family, past or present
hominid
mode of arm hanging and arm swigning that uses a rotating shoulder to suspend the body of an ape or hominid beneath a branch or to travel between branches
brachiation
an animal that eats a diet composed mainly of fruit
frugivorous
most socially monogomous of higher primates, very vocal to show territory, long arms, extremely elongated fingers, short thumbs, suspensory shoulder designed for tree top life, frugivorous
gibbons
large bodied, extremely sexually dimorphic, highly arboreal, females protect their area and males have control over multiple female areas
orangutans
have bimaturism where a male looks like an adolescent so he can approach the female without being detected by the protecting male and mate with the female
orangutans
interval between successive births is 8 years
orangutans
largest primate
gorilla
extremely sexually dimorphic, adolescents have black on back and adults have a patch of grey hair on their back, 4 years between births
gorilla
live in one or multimale groups, from which females emigrate at sexual maturity
gorilla
males live in small groups until they find a breeding group, either by driving male(s) out or by stealing a few females from an established group
gorilla
form of mating system seen in chimps, bonobos, and a few other primates in which there are temporary subgroups but no stable, cohesive groups
fission-fusion
live in small community, males venture out to look for other females and possibly recruit them, females wander off alone. at maturity males stay, and females go off to neighboring groups, males form strong bonds with males while females do not with other females
chimps
live by learned traditions and pass these on to their offspring
chimps
closely related to chimps
bonobos
live in a community, males stay at maturation and females leave, females form strong bonds with other females
bonobos
hypersexual
bonobos
the study of interrelationships of plants, animals, and the physical environment in which they live
ecology
animals who eat a diet composed mainly of leaves, or foliage
folivores
toxic chemical compounds found in the leaves of many plants which the plants use as a defense against leaf-eating animals
secondary compounds
leaving and fruiting cycles of a forest
phenology
few offspring, long life span, sheltered and prolonged maturity
K selection
the spatial area used by a primate group
home range
part of a home range that is most intensively used
core area
the part of a home range that is defended against other members of the same species
territory
many offspring, short life span, less parental investment
R selection
when ovulation is not signaled outwardly but female is still receptive to sex when not ovulating
continual receptivity
having traits that attract females but give other costs
handicap principle
when a new group male kills the younguns so his lineage will start faster
infanticide
V in bottom jaw that sharpens the canine
canine/premolar honing complex
V in bottom jaw for canine to fit into
diastema
where neck muscles attach, from jawline to jawline
nuchal crest
where chewing muscles attach on top of head
sagittal crest
scapula flat side to side
quadripedal
scapula flat front to back
bipedal
specific to primates, bones in inner ear
petrosal bulla
a love of home, males leave and females stay
philopatry
ability to bear kids
fecundability
primates cooperate in this way, in which the actor loses and the recipient gains
altruism
hamilton's rule for adaptive altruism
altruism will increase if and only if the benefit outweighs the cost
two neural pathways for fear
1. quick fast and dirty- react quickly so many false alarms
2. slow and clean- may not be fast enough
primate social system consisting of multiple males and multiple females
polygynandrous
one female with multiple males
polyandry
primate social system in which females remain and breed in the group of their birth and males emigrate
female philopatry
primate social system in which males remain and breed in the group of their birth and females emigrate
male philopatry
hominid intelligence and brain size increase modeled as a result of tool use and extractive foraging
technical intelligence
hominid intelligence and brain size increase theorized as a result of benefits of navigating and foraging in a complex tropical forest ecosystem
ecological intelligence
hominid intelligence and brain size increase as a result of benefits of being politically and socially clever when living with others
social intelligence or Machiavellian intelligence
ability to place oneself into the mind of others
theory of mind
approach to understanding the evolution of human behavior that emphasizes the selection of specific behavioral patterns in the context of the environment of evolutionary adaptedness
evolutionary psychology
according to evolutionary psychologists, the critical period for understanding the selective forces that shape human behavior; exemplified by hunergatherer lifestyles of hominids before the advent of agriculture
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)