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52 Cards in this Set

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What is Anthropolgy?
The study of the humans condition across space and time from multiply perspectives.
What are the four subfields of Anthropology?
Cultural/social, Archaeology, lingustic, and biological.
Tell about cultural/social anthro.
Study things like identity and social relationships.
Tell about Archaeology Anthro.
The systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery.
Tell about Linguistic Anthro.
usage of language in certain studies. Our language are closely related to one another.
Tell about biological Anthro.
neotal(skeleton body)
What is science?
a collection of bodies of knowledge and ways of describing, predicting, and manipulating events in the universe. Also, a set or practices and methods designed to challenge and revise preconceived notions about the world with logic, reason, and the collection of empirical data. Science is both as body of knowledge and a practice.
What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
Theory- a logically consistent conceptual framework that is used as a basis to describe and predict events in the universe. Hypothesis- A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
-or-
Theory = idea about why things happen in the way that they do
Hypothesis = a prediction based on that idea
what does theoretical mean?
denotes a prediction that follows logically from a theory.
What is Uniformitarianism?
The theory that all geologic phenomena may be explained as the result of existing forces having operated uniformly from the origin of the earth to the present time. Hutton/lyell say- (the earth is very old_
Example,Uniformitarianism is just that small processes that we see everyday (water running down a canyon) will eventually cause a major change (reshaping of canyon). It's like how erosion changes the geographical landscape over many years.
What is Catastrophism?
The doctrine that major changes in the earth's crust result from catastrophes rather than evolutionary processes.
Cuvier says- (The earth is old and dynamic)
Analogy: How are bat wings and butterfly wings analogous?
analogy is the characteristicss that have a similar function/appearance but are not necessarily made up of the same elements of anatomy/physiology.
The bats and butterfly wings are similar in some ways and yet they are different at the same time.
Homology: How are bat wings and your arms homologous?
likeness in structure between parts of different organisms due to evolutionary differentiation from the same or a corresponding part of a remote ancestor.
What concept did Charles Darwin co-orginate and popularize?
Natural selection is a process by which biological populations are altered over time, as a result of the propagation of heritable traits that affect the capacity of individual organisms to survive and reproduce. -or- The process in nature by which, according to Darwin's theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.
What is the relationship between resources and reproduction?
Malthusianism: Reproduction outpaces development of new resources. (our ability to feed ourselves added over time/your abilities are added).
According to Natural selection: What does the relationship between resources and reproduction lead to?
struggle for existence competion for limitied resources means some organisms do not survive to reproduce
On what kind of variation does natural selection depend to cause evolution?
Hertiable Variation...hertiable novel variants exist/arise in a population that confer advangtages and disadvantages in survival and/or reproduction to organisms. Example- genes passed on to the next generation. ex.Heights get over representive.
Define Evolution
The change in the frequency of genetic variants (alles) from one generation to the next in a population.
Explain the process of Central dogma of molecular evolution
DNA (self replicating) ~~> Process of Transcription~~> RNA ~~> Process of Translation ~~> Protein.
What is a gene?
A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes undergo mutation when their DNA sequence changes.
What is a locus?
The position that a given gene occupies on a chromosome.
What is a allele?
One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome.
What is a chromosome?
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
What is a genome?
The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.
The combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.
What is recombination?
the formation by the processes of crossing-over and independent assortment of new combinations of genes in progeny that did not occur in the parents
What is meiosis?
The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants.
What is mitosis?
The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically in four stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) resulting in two new nuclei, each of which has exactly the same chromosome and DNA content as the original cell. -and- cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
What is mutation?
A change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.
The process by which such a change occurs in a chromosome, either through an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA coding for a gene or through a change in the physical arrangement of a chromosome.
What is the ultimate source of novel genetic variation?
conceived of as happening at random with some probablity.
a mutation given from one generation to the next. example: parent sequence TATGTAAC ~~> daughter sequence TATGTAGT
Are all mutations deletious?
No! most are neutral or nearly so they dont confer advantage or disadvatage in terms of reproduction and surival.
What is random genetic drift?
Genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution that acts in concert with natural selection to change the characteristics of species over time. It is a stochastic effect that arises from the role of random sampling in the production of offspring. Like selection, it acts on populations, altering the frequency of alleles and the predominance of traits amongst members of a population, and changing the diversity of the group.
Does random genetic drift act more strongly in a small or large population?
Species with a SMALL population size are subject to a higher chance of extinction because their small population size makes them more vulnerable to genetic drift, resulting in stochastic variation in their gene pool, their demography and their environment.
Explain Bottleneck
A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude.
Explain founder effect
Founder effects arise when a new and isolated environment is invaded by only a few members of a species, which then multiply rapidly. In the extreme case, a single fertilised female might arrive in a new environment.
Explain Gene flow
Gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of genes from one population to another.
Migration into or out of a population may be responsible for a marked change in gene pool frequencies (the number of individual members with a particular trait).
what is adaptation?
An alteration or adjustment in structure or habits, often hereditary, by which a species or individual improves its condition in relationship to its environment.
-and- Adaptation in biology, an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection that increases the likelihood of producing larger numbers of offspring or its reproductive success.
What is hertiable variation?
variation between organisms that has some genetic basis.
The basic units in the Linnaen system are...
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Explain the biological species concept
"species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups." ALso, A set of actually or potentially reproductive compatiable individuals. example: mating a human and a frog. you wouldnt get fertilization.
Explain the Evolutionary species concept.
"an evolutionary species is a single lineage of ancestor - descendent populations which maintains its identity from other such lineages and which has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate." (wiley 1998) Example: lineages- no matter which one you pick they all have the same charateristic on a chart shaped like a family tree. Organisms in the same genus are closely related maybe not the same genes but the same family.
What is taxonomy?
The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships
What is synapomorhy?
A synapomorphy is a character shared by two or more taxa which was derived from their common ancestor.
Example: The stars have the same body shaped have a dervied that characteristic because they have that common ancestor
What is symplesiomorphy?
is a shared basal trait.
Its a shared ancesteral characteristic. Example: There are dots in the stars (a common ancestor had it it) but not in the pentagon even though it shares the same common ancestor.
What is typological?
organisms corresponding to a particular metaphysical essence.-ALso- the study or systematic classification of types that have characteristics or traits in common.
principle of stratigraphic superimposition
"the rocks found below other rocks are older"
What aer the different outcomes of mitosis and meiosis?
mitosis-produce somatic cells
meiosis-produce sex cells
Describe Heritable variation
Heritable novel varaints exist arise in a population taht confer advantages or disadv. in survival and/or reproduction to orgainisms. Also, Heritable novel variants conferring survivorship or excess reproduction will be overrepresented in the subsequent generation. Also, the extent you resemble yoru parents. This is fuel for natural selection. Ex: the birds with the bigger beaks last longer because they eat of the things around them and not rely on humans to feed them like birds of smaller beaks. Also offpring do not resemble there parents with respect to beak size so they will die off. (they ddint inherit a good beak size inorder to survive in the population).
what is the ultimate source of novel genetic variation?
mutation
Does random genetic drift destroy or create variation?
destroy
Does gene flow between two populations homogenize or diversify thier allele frequencies?
homogenize
is a useful feature that evolved by accident(ex:random genetic drift) an adaptation?
no
hwo do you write a binomen
Homo sapiens (can be underlined or the whole thing can be italized)