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54 Cards in this Set

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an influential scientist who classified plants and animals in a systema naturae (in descending order going from kingdom to class, order, genus, and species), and placed humans in the same order (Primates) as apes and monkeys. Accepted the notion that all species were created by God and fixed in their form. Often viewed as an anti-evolutionist.
did not accept the notion that species were fixed in their form. He believed acquired characteristics could be inherited and therefore species could evolve; individuals who in their lifetime developed characteristics helpful to survival would pass those characteristics on to future generations, thereby changing the physical makeup of the species. Used the example of the long-necked giraffes to support his theory, but no real evidence was ever found.
monk and amateur botanist who bred several varieties of pea plants and made detailed observations on their offspring.
was a leading opponent of evolution. Created the theory of catastrophism, proposing that a quick series of catastrophes accounted for changes in the earth and the fossil record.
questioned catastrophism and built on Hutton’s earlier work which had been largely ignored. He, on the other hand, received immediate acclaim. Their concept of uniformitarianism suggested that the earth is constantly being shaped and reshaped by natural forces that have operated over a vast stretch of time. Also discussed the formation of geological strata and paleontology. Good friends with Darwin.
capable of grasping or wrapping with tail.
prehensile tail
which two primates have true prehensile tails?
Howler monkeys and spider monkeys
active during the night
active during the day
weird activity pattern; sometimes active in day, sometimes active in night
active at dawn and dusk
a particular trait seems to be positively favored and the average value shifts over time toward the adaptive trait (ex: in 1850, an almost black moth was spotted for the first time in Manchester, where most of the moths were mostly gray. A century later, 95% of the moths in industrial parts of Britain were black; only in the rural areas were the moths mostly gray).
directional selection
removes individuals from both ends of a phenotypic distribution thus maintaining the same distribution mean.
stabilizing selection
ropelike body within the nucleus of every one of the organism’s cells. Usually occur in pairs.
if two genes for a trait are the same (AA or aa).
a change in the DNA sequence. Produces an altered gene. Can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral.
various random processes that affect gene frequencies in small, relatively isolated populations. Over time in small populations, may cause a neutral or nearly neutral gene becoming more or less frequent just by chance.
genetic drift
the process whereby genes pass from one population to another through mating and reproduction. Gene flow decreases differences between populations.
gene flow
when cells divide during growth, they produce identical copies of themselves.
the process by which the reproductive cells are produced. Ensures that a human baby will not receive twice the number of chromosomes characteristic of its species.
after studying changes in plants, fossil animals, and varieties of domestic and wild pigeons, he rejected the notion that each species was created at one time in a fixed form. Wrote Origin of Species. Believed in evolution and natural selection.
suggests that different species developed, one from another, over long periods of time.
The four underlying principles of natural selection are:
variation (of offspring), heritability (not all will survive), differential reproductive success (survival of the fittest ignoring chance), and particular environment (traits inherited).
sorting of chromosomes in meiosis.
genetic segregation
the exchange of sections of chromosomes between one chromosome and another.
what's DNA? What's its shape and what are its bases?
deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a long, two-stranded molecule shaped like a double helix. There are four bases, and each base always has the same opposite base--- adenine and thymine are paired, as are cytosine and guanine.
a population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce fertile and viable offspring.
a group of closely related organisms that have evolved morphological and behavioral features enabling them to exploit different ecological niches.
adaptive radiation
the development of a new species. May occur if one subgroup of a species finds itself in a radically different environment.
what may perhaps be a problem with speciation?
One of the problems of recognizing species may be because speciation is happening but is not complete.
an explanation of observed results. Ex: humans evolved from apes.
a set of hypotheses that have been supported (not rejected).
what are the different aspects of taxonomy?
what are some common primate traits?
rotating forearm, relatively large brain, reduction in sense of smell (olfactory bulbs), expansion of primary visual area, grasping hands and feet, forward-facing eyes.
where are old world monkeys found?
africa and asia
where are new world monkeys found?
central and south america
what primates are found in madagascar?
prosimians (lemurs)
what primates are found in the new world?
monkeys and apes
what primates are found in the old world?
prosimians, monkeys, and apes
The order Primates is divided into two suborders-- what are they (clue: there's 4)
anthropoids, prosimians, strepsirhines and halothanes.
the prosimians include:
tarsiers, lemurs, and lorises
in contrast with the anthropoids, explain some characteristics of the prosimians
In contrast with the anthropoids, they typically have more mobile ears, whiskers, longer snouts, and relatively fixed facial expressions.
the anthropoids include:
humans, apes, and monkeys
what are some characteristics of the anthropoids?
They have rounded braincases, non mobile ears, relatively small, flat faces, and dextrous hands.
have broad, flat-bridged noses, with nostrils facing outward.
have narrow noses with nostrils facing downward.
the odd-nosed monkeys.
what must a scientific hypothesis be?
what are some characteristics of nocturnal primates?
big eyes, ears, and nose
what are the largest New World monkeys?
the Atelins
what is the most adaptable primate?
the Macaques
what size are the Old World monkeys?
medium to big
which primate has colored babies?