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26 Cards in this Set

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Sedentism
The lifestyle associated with residence in permanent villages, towns, and cities, generally associated with the mergence of farming.
Domestication
The process by which human selection causes genetic changes in plants and animals.
Neolithic
The "New Stone Age" characterized by stone tools used for harvesting and processing grains.
Diffusion
The spread of culture through contact
Edge hypothesis
Explanation for the rise of farming, which says that plant domestication first occurred in marginal areas.
Tell
A mount formed over time through the build-up of human settlements and the accumulation of trash.
Horticulture
A mode of production based on growing domesticated crops in gardens using simple hand tools.
Agriculture
A mode of production that involves growing crops with the use of plowing, irrigation, and fertilizer. Also called "farming."
Religion
Beliefs and actions related to supernatural beings and forces.
Pastoralism
A mode of production based on keeping domesticated animal herds and using their products, such as meat and milk, for most of the diet.
Archaic
The time period in the New World, from about 8000 to 2000 BCE, when foragers began to domesticate plants.
Teosinte
The wild ancestor of maize (corn).
Mesoamerican triad
Maize, squash, and beans--the three most important domesticated plants in the Mesoamerican Neolithic.
Phytolith
Microscopic fossil plant remains.
State
A form of political organization with a bureaucracy and diversified governmental institutions designed to administer large and complex societies.
Circumscription
The tight bounding of a society in a small area.
Chiefdom
A form of political organization that has a central leader and encompasses several smaller political units.
Social stratification
Hierarchy and inequality among different groups.
Empire
A form of long-term political organization that involves rule over multiple states, territories, and ethnic groups.
Settlement pattern research
A research approach that emphasizes the relationships of settlments with their environment and each other.
Ziggurat
A large mud-brick platform supporting public and religious structures in the early cities of Mesopotamia.
Bureaucracy
A form of administration that is hierarchical, specialized, and relies on record keeping.
Pictographic
In writing, elements in which a sign stands for a concept.
What is a Tenuta?
the name for an Estate in Italian
Intensification
The use of inputs of increased human labor and technology such as plowing, irrigation, and fertilizer in order to increase agricultural productivity of a given plot of land.
dynamic model
The view that all states go through cycles of expansion and decline.