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32 Cards in this Set

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Reciprocity as a distribution system is:
Exchange of goods and services of roughly the same value without the use of currency.
3 kinds of reciprocity:
Generalized, balanced, negative
7 ill effects of the movement from food production to food collection are:
Labor intensive
Long hours
Monotinous work
Less balanced diet
Rely on one crop (less crop security)
More diseases (close proximity to animals/waste)
Heirachy - social stratification (people who have less want to take from people who have more)
How do we adapt to our natural environment?
Technology
Hunters and gatherers are efficient because
they have been gathering for over 200,000 years.
10,000-12,000 years ago we domesticated what?
plants/animals
The domesticisation of plants and animal is called the _________ revolution
neolithic
What brought about the 2nd revolution?
The Division of Labor
What are the 3 revolutions?
1. Neolithic revolution (domestication of plants and animals)
2. Divison of labor
3. Industrial revoultion
Who was given credit for the industrial revolution and why?
. England was given credit for the industrial revolution because they could smelt iron/ore.
Pastoralists 2 kinds
Nomadic and Transhumance (means they became tethered to one place and they set up a permanent residence....this also means they are SEDENTARY)
Agriculture 3 characteristics
YOU NEEED WATER/LABOR/FERTILIZER
Horticulture - Rain (water) / Human (labor) / Plant (slash burn) (Fertilizer)
Intensive - Ditch Irrigation / Animal / Waste
Industrial - Pipe irrigation / Machine / Chemical
We measure the amount of affluence is measured by the amount of
free time we have.
4 things that families regulate
reproduction, socialiaztion of children, division of labor based upon gender, regulates residency
Two rules about marriage (Exo, Endo)
1. Exogamy- outside. You must marry outside of your last name; you have to marry outside of your 1st cousins. A group that you must marry outside of.
2. Endogamy- Inside. A group that you must marry inside of. Religion (marry an LDS person), many people require marrying within your race or social class.
Four Theories
1. Natural Aversion Theory
2. Imbreeding Theory
3. Family Disruption Theory
4. Theory of expanding social alliances
Natural Aversion Theory
- parents naturally not attracted to siblings, siblings not attracted to parents, and siblings not attracted to siblings. (On the test he will ask a question: which of the four theories is good, and which of the theories is bad. It is not a bad theory, but it still happens, apparently some people don’t have a natural aversion.) About 15% under the age of 20 are involved in an incest relationship.
Imbreeding Theory
not a good theory, because there is no scientific proof that they have that gene. There is no way to predict when that recessive gene will reappear. (two genes, recessive, and dominant) They don’t know if they have harmful recessive genes that they can pass onto their children.
Family Disruption theory
two components- 1. Jealousy- people kill/ do horrible things because they are jealous about each other. The nuclear family wouldn’t work because of jealousy. 2. Creates role ambiguity, he doesn’t know who he is, his aunt and his uncle are his mother and father. This is a good theory.
The theory of expanding social alliances
Through marriage you have created social allies, you have created more brother and sisters, a new set of parents, in-laws. The broader the gene pool the healthier the offspring. This is a good theory.
Kinship creates two kinds of relationships based upon blood, disscent group.
Marriage (inlaws, relatives)
Unilineal disssent:
LIST 6 characteristics of a dissent group:
1. Identity
2. Regulates marriage
3. Property
4. Judicial system
5. Security and protection
6. Worship (ancestor worship is the most common worship)
What is the relationship between marriage and family?
Marriage is the ceremony that creates the social unit we call the family.
List and explain the 4 characteristics of...
Reproduction
Children
Gender
Residency
KNOW the 9 characterists of Bride Wealth (LIST)
1. An Insurance policy that bride is not mistreated harshly
2. It reduces divorce
3. Compensates the bride's family for the loss of her economic potential
4. Bride wealth is seen as marriage license. It legitimizes marriage
5. The rights to her procreative capabilities get passed from her family to the grooms family.
6. She has no rights to her children that are born to her. The men in the household do.
7. The groom's family needs someone to come into the household to perfrom domestic services
8. The bride wealth is seen as a symbol between the union/alliance of the two families
9. Seen as a leveling device for wealth
4 Characteristics of Hunters/Gatherers
1st - small number
2nd Characteristic - family based
3rd Characteristic - Nomadic, they are on the move always.
4th Characteristic - They live in marginally useful areas, the food producers have pushed them out of the other areas.
is the Neolithic theory is about 2 things:
1. Domesticating Animals 2. Domesticating Plants
2 kinds of pastoralists
Nomadic and Transhuman (where they set up a permanent residency and then go out and gather.
Three Theories of Division of Labor based on gender
1. Men have a stronger upper body, therefore more adept at farming, tending to soil, hunting, warfare, better at things that take them outside the domestic domain (household).
2. Women are better attuned to do things around the household, because you do not want to put children and women out on harms way, because it could harm the womens procreative abilities - they bear, nurture, and socialize those children.
3. Men are more expendable in terms of reproduction - women have a more scarce resource (fertility) because she only has a limited period of time to produce children (from puberty to menopause, about 30-35 years)
Reciprocity - Three different types
1. Generalized - Whom do you practice it? Moral Obligation? Time you have to return favor/product? (Hunters and Gatherers practice Generalized Reciprocity - example: When you kill an animal, you have to consume it immediately because of no refrigeration. They will be willing to share because there is no way that they can consume all of it before it spoils. Also, there is uncertainty when you will catch something again, so they all must share. Lastly, they are members of your family, so there is also a moral obligation to support them as well.) GENERALIZED RECIP SUMMARY (Whom? Family. Time? Not specified. Moral Obligation? Highest)
2. Balanced - Trading partners (Whom, Moral Obligation, Time), High, Immediate
3. Negative - (Whom, Moral Obligation, Time) Stranger, No, Immediate
Driving force of relationships is what principle?
Reciprocity (Role-Relationship reciprocity)
How do you space out age in your children?
You breastfeed longer.