Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Culture
Tradtions & Customs that govern behavior & belief; distinctly human; transmitted through learning
Applied Anthropology
application of anthropology to identify, assess & solve contemporary social problems
Scientific Method
using experiment, observation, & deduction to product reliable explanations of phenomena
Adaptation
process by which organisms cope with their environment
Holism
Concerns the whole of the human condition - past, present, future; biology & culture, sociaty & language
Theory
Explains part of the world in a logical & consistant manner
Osteology
study of skeletal variation & its biological & social causes
Anthropometry
measurements of the body - height, weight, features of skull & face
Paleopathology
study of disease & injury in skeletons from archaeoligical sites
Hominid
members of the zoological family that includes fossil & living humans
Systematic survey
information gathered on patterns of settlements over a large area - remote senesing, regional perspective
Excavation
digging through layers of deposits that make up archaeological or fossil sites
Fossil
preserved remains of once living things often buried in the ground
Trace fossil
tracks or marks left by living organisms
Provenience
precise location of a fossils location
Taphonomy
the study of what happens to plants & animals after they die
Paleoecology
the study of ancient environments - diet, plants, animals, climate
Paleomagnetic reversal
earths magnetic field has shifted back & forth from North to South in past @ irregular intervals; preserved in magnetic minerals of sedimentary rock
Carbon-14 dating
measuring the amount of 14C in a sample, the time since death can be calculated; half-life 5,730 yrs
Stratigraphy
older remains found in deeper strata (layers) of the earth
Potassium-argon dating
material used in Volcanic rock, decay of potassium into argon gas; half-life 1.31 billion yrs
dendrochronology
Tree ring counting - trees accumulare one ring for every growth period, useful for recent past
Taxonomy
classifying living things into a hierarchy
Binomial nomenclature
genus & species
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
deveopled by Jean Baptiste Lamarck; species are not fixed
Uniformitarianism
developed by Sir Charles Lyell; forces which shape the geological record are the sames forces we witness today
Evolution
a change in the frequncy of a gene or trait in a population over mutipe generations
Natural selection
the environment favors (selects) those best adaped through differiental offspring-favorable variations inherited
Molecular genetics
structure and function of the genetic material
Mendelian genetics
patterns of inheritance
Population genetics
patterns of gentic variation with in & between populations
Eukaryotic cells
cells that contain a nucleus
Nucleus
center of cell; contains DNA
DNA
the double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code
Chromosome
DNA structure inside the nucleus
Homologous
chromosomes belong to the same pair
Sex chromosomes
XX or XY detirmines male or female
Autosomes
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Gene
segment of DNA responsible for detirming a single trait or protein
DNA bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
Base paring rule
A = = T
G = = C
Codon
every 3 bases are a codon, each codon is an amino acid
Protein synthesis
What?!?!
RNA
single stranded genetic molecule- contains vracil instead of thymine
Mutation
change in base sequence; only source of new variation
Mutagenic agents
radiation, toxic chemicals
Sex cell
sperm & ova
Somatic cell
non sex cells
Meiosis
sex cell production
Mitosis
ordinary cell division or growth; makes 2 exact copies
Homozygous
2 of the same allele
Heterozygous
2 different allels
Genotype
the 2 alleles an individual carries at the locus
Phenotype
the observable trait
Locus
the location of the gene on a chromosome
Allele
alternate expression of a gene
Recessive
the allele which is masked when the other is present
Dominant
the allele which masks the effect of the other
Codominance
when both alleles are expressed in a heterozygote
Simple trait
controlled by a single locus; discrete number of phenotypes
Complex trait
polygenic: controlled by 1 gene
Polymorphism
the occurence of more than 1 allele at the locus
Microevolution
evolutionary change w/in a species; change in allele frequencies with in a population
Macroevolution
evolution change of a species
Allele frequency
the proportion of an allele with in a population
Genotype frequency
the proportion of a genotype with in a population
Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium theory
in the absence of evolutionary change, genotypes & allele frequencies remain the same from one generation to the next
Gene flow
movement of genes from one population to another; makes 2 populations more similar to each other; introduces new variation
Genetic drift
the random fluctuation of allele frequencies from one generation to the next
Nonrandom mating
mating based on phenotype similarity or dissimilarity
Inbreeding
mating between biologically related individuals
Speciation
the formation of a new species; occurs through reproductive isolation & genetic divergence
Extinction
when all of a species die