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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
normal behavior and thought
culture
seperates hominids from all others
bipedal locomotion
relatively large brain
extinct and living species
logically self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of a certain natural phenomenon supported by experimental evidence
scientific theory
systematic and formalized expression of all previous observations made
scientific theory
it is predictive, logical, testable, and has not been falsified, although it can be
scientific theory
change through time, not progress
evolution
change in allele frequencies over time
evolution
alternate forms of a gene
allele
said christian creation happened in 4004 BC
bishop ussher
wrote systema naturae, invented binomial nomenclature (genus species), taxonomy
carolus linnaeus
economist, wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population, human population growth is exponential while food supplies remain stable
thomas malthus
limiting resources keep populations in check
thomas malthus
attempted to explain the mechanism of evolution, inheritance of acquired characteristics, use and disuse
jean-baptiste lamarck
giraffe's neck gets longer to reach branches in its lifetime, passes on a longer neck, called this and thought up by him
inheritance of acquired characteristics, jean-baptiste lamarck
if you dont need it you wont pass it on, called this and thought up by him
use and disuse, jean-baptiste lamarck
interactions between organisms and their environments
jean-baptiste lamarck
against lamarck because of fixity of species
Georges Cuvier
species were unchanging fixities of nature
fixity of species
thought up catastrophism
Georges Cuvier
after large extinction, area is restocked with new forms migrating from neighboring regions, called this, thought up by him
catastrophism, Georges Cuvier
founder of modern geology
charles lyell
uniformitarianism thought up by him
charles lyell
geological processes that happened in the past shaped our world to what we see today
uniformitarianism
Examples of this are rivers cutting banks, wind moving sand around
uniformitarianism
man connected to the deep time theory
charles lyell
concept saying the earth must be really old because processes are so slow
deep time
independently came up with the idea of natural selection
darwin and wallace
mechanism for evolution
natural selection
argued that humans and apes are very closely related
T.H. Huxley
arugued that human ancestry likely to be in Africa
T.H. Huxley
term for: variation is transmitted from parent to offspring
descent with modification
Darwin's postulates for NS
the ability of a population to expand is infinite, the ability of any environment to support populations is finite.
organisms within populations vary. variation affects ability to survive and reproduce.
variation is transmitted from parent to offspring.
reproductive success, number of offspring
fitness
some variations are more advantageous than others, organisms with those variations will be favored and they will have more offspring
differential fitness
change in DNA, can be good or bad
mutation
came up with survival of the fittest
herbert spencer
natural selection acts on the (individual/population)
individual
evolution acts on the (individual/popluation)
population
type of selection when the curve narrows toward the middle
stabilizing selection
type of selection when the curve splits and moves toward the edges
disruptive selection
type of selection where the curve shifts one way or the other
directional selection
Darwin's bulldog, defended darwin's theory in public
T.H.Huxley
Human Kindgom
animalia
Human Phylum
Chordate
Human Subphylum
Vertebrata
Human Class
Mammalia
Human order
Primates
Human Superfamily
Hominoidea
Human Genus
Homo
Human Species
Homo sapiens
useless structures
vestigial traits
intermediate between land and marine animals, ancestor of today's whales and dolphins
ambulocetus
himalayan snow lotus--largest ones picked during the flowering period, resulted in smaller plants
unintentional selection
one major problem with darwinism
darwin could not work out how heritable traits were passed on from one gernation to the next
example: bacteria, blue-green algae
prokaryote
cell with no nucleus
prokaryote
cell with a nucleus
eukaryote
stem cells are this type of cell
somatic cell
long condensed strand of DNA
chromosome
segments of DNA
genes
Genes are located on:
chromosomes
pairs of chromosomes
homologues, homologous pairs
middle of the chromosome
centromere
xx
female
xy
male
somatic cell replication
mitosis
step of mitosis: chromosomes replicate, become sister chromatids
interphase
step of mitosis: condense
prophase
step of mitosis: align, meet
metaphase
step of mitosis: seperate apart
anaphase
step of mitosis: division of cell, new cell membrane
telophase
different variants of a gene
allele
where gene is located on the chromosome
locus
both alleles at each locus are the same
homozygous
alleles at each locus are different
heterozygous
4 chromatids
tetrad
deletions, substitutions, or additions
point mutations
meiosis in females in the ovaries is called
oogenesis
meiosis in males in the testis
spermatogenesis
one chromosome pair is missing
monosomy
extra chromosome pair
trisomy
monosomy where females only have one X, delay or no sexual maturity, small body, delayed mental maturity, sterile...occurs in how many?
turner syndrome...1/10,000
common face and head shape, short stature, characteristic fingerprint patterns, problems with physical and mental development, susceptible to Alzheimer disease
down syndrome, trisomy 21