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64 Cards in this Set

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2 Layers of Subcutaneous Fascia in anterior abdominal wall:
Camper's Fascia:
Fatty layer - contributes to rolls of fat.
Scarpa's Fascia
-Fibrocollagenous membrane - more prominent in lower abdomen.
-Deep to Camper's Fascia
Origin/Insertion of Scarpa's Fascia:
Origin: Costal arch
Insertion: Upper 1/3 of thigh; merges w/ fascia lata of thighs
4 divisions of Scarpa's Fascia:
1. Darto's fascia (scrotum)
2. Fascia Lata (deep thigh fascia)
3. Buck's Fascia (penis)
4. Colle's Fascia (perineum)
What can result from pelvic fracture?
Lacerated urethra
What implication does lacerated urethra have on Scarpa's fascia?
Urine can invade the space between Scarpa's fascia and deep abdominal fascia, go into thighs (down by fascia lata)
What is it called when urine invades the space between scarpa's fascia and fascia lata?
Where else can urine from a lacerated urethra go in males?
Around Darto's (scrotum) and Buck's (penis) fascia; causing inflammation of these areas.
Viscera contained in abdominal cavity:
Abdominal + Pelvic (abdominopelvic cavity)
Roof of abdominal cavity?
Roof = thoracic diaphragm
Floor = nonexistent (pelvic diaphragm)
thin 2-layer transparent serous membrane lining interior abdominal wall and viscera.
Peritoneal cavity
Space created between Parietal peritoneum and Visceral peritoneum
Potential problems w/ Peritoneal cavity:
Peritonitis - rupture of peritoneum causes inflammation /infection if gas/fecal debris or bacteria enter the space.
Usual cause of generalized peritonitis?
Ulcer perforation of the abdominal peritoneum - spills acidic contents into cavity.
Endoabdominal/Endopelvic Fascia:
-Includes what?
Includes: all investing fascia in abdominal cavity
Function: to hold viscera within abdominopelvic cavity
3 Divisions of Endoabdominal Fascia:
What gives the 3 divisions of endoabdominal fascia their names?
The muscles they are associated with.
What is the definition of a hernia?
Protrusion of a structure through the endoabdominal fascia.
What nerves supply the abdominal muscles?
Lower costal nerves
Another name for the Arcuate line:
Semicircular line of douglas
Where is Arcuate line?
Halfway between Umbilicus and Pubic crest
Importance of Arcuate Line:
Point where 2 layers of rectus sheath goes from being POSTERIOR to rectus abdominis (superiorly) to ANTERIOR to it (inferiorly)
How is the Rectus Sheath oriented above the arcuate line?
Posterior to rectus abdominis m
How is the Rectus sheath oriented below the arcuate line?
Anterior to it
What layer lies deep to the Rectus sheath?
Transversus abdominis muscle
What lies deep to Transversus abdominis muscle?
Transversalis fascia
What lies deep to transversalis fascia?
Extraperitoneal fascia
What lies deep to extraperitoneal fascia?
What lies deep to peritoneum?
Viscera - abdominal organs!
Rectus Abdominis muscle:
Origin = pubic crest / symphysis
Insertion = Xyphoid process and 5-7th costal cartilages
Blood supply to rectus abdominis:
Superior/inferior epigastric arteries
Superior epigastric artery comes from:
Internal Thoracic A. (Terminal branch)
Inferior epigastric artery comes from:
Iliac artery (inguinal region)
What prevents the rectus abdominis muscle from completely coming loose from the abdominal wall if it is cut horizontally?
Tendinous inscriptions - so it won't fly back and hit the surgeon in the face.
Linea semilunaris
Lateral border of rectus muscle
Linea alba
Meeting point of aponeuroses of Oblique and Transverse abdominal muscles
Linea nigra
darkening of this line in pregnant females
External Oblique muscle:
origin = lower 8 ribs
insertion = anterior 1/2 of iliac crest, linea alba
Location of external oblique in relation to other abdominal muscles:
Most superficial
Direction of External oblique fibers:
Inferiorly and medially
What is formed from External oblique?
Inguinal ligament
Inguinal ligament extends between what 2 structures?
-ASIS (ant superior iliac spine)
-Pubic bone
What is the external inguinal ring?
An opening in the inferior portion of External Oblique Aponeurosis as it splits around the spermatic cord.
Boundaries of External Inguinal Ring:
Inferior/Superior Crus
Fibers that hold the Sup/Inf crus together? Function?
Intercrural fibers - prevent separation of the edges of the external ring.
What is the external inguinal ring an opening of?
The inguinal canal
What does the Inguinal canal contain
-in males
-in females
Males = spermatic cord

Females = round ligament
What is the internal inguinal ring?
The opening of the inguinal canal into the abdominal wall.
Internal Oblique Muscle:
Origin = lateral 1/2 of inguinal ligament, ASIS, Thoracolumbar fascia.
Insertion = Linea alba and inferior borders of ribs 10-12
Location of internal oblique muscle in relation to other abdominal mm?
Between external oblique and transverus abdominis
Direction of fibers of internal oblique muscle?
Superiorly and Medially
What are the Ant/Post Lamellae of internal oblique muscle?
The two divisions of its aponeurosis that encircle the rectus abdominis muscle ABOVE the arcuate line
Conjoint Tendon
The joining of inferiormost fibers of Int. Oblique mm and Transversus Abdominis mm
Where does Conjoint tendon insert?
Pubic crest
Transversus abdominis
-Origins (4)
-Costal cartilages 7-12
-Iliac crest
-Lumbodorsal fascia
-Lateral 1/3 inguinal ligament
Insertion = Linea Alba
Relatn of Transversus abdominis aponeurosis to Rectus abdominis above/below the arcuate line:
Above: runs POSTERIOR to it
Below: runs ANTERIOR to it
What is the Rectus Sheath?
The strong, fibrous aponeurosis of the 3 abdominal muscles that surrounds Rectus Abdominis m
Why is the rectus sheath "incomplete"?
Because the 3 muscles run ANTERIOR to it below the arcuate line.
So what is the only supporting structure for the posterior rectus abdominis muscle below the arcuate line????
Transversalis Fascia
And what is Transversalis Fascia again?
The portion of Endoabdominal fascia that is near that muscle.
What is the consequence of the decreased support in the lower posterior region of rectus abdominis?
Can get a beer belly or hernia
Another name for the Inguinal triangle:
Hesselbach's triangle
Borders of the Inguinal Triangle:
Medial: Linea semilunaris
Laterl: Inf epigastric artery
Inferior: Inguinal ligament
Floor: Transversalis fascia
Roof: Internal oblique m.