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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of tissue
four main groups of tissue
epithelial, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue.
epitelial tissue
covers sufaces lines cavities and forms glands
connective tissue
supports and forms the framework of all parts of the body
nervous tissue
conducts nerve impulses
squamous (SKWA-mus)
flat and irregular epithelial tissue
square epithelial tissue
long and narrow epithelial tissue.
cells that are aranged in s single layer of the structure of epithelial tissue
EX: simple epithelium allows tract into the blood and allows for passage of oxygen from the blood to body tissue.
areas of the epithelial tissue subject to wear and tear, they require protection and coverage with multiple layers, an arrangement decribed as statified.
if the cells of the epithelial tissues are straggered so that they appear to be in muliple layers but really are not, they are termed pseudostratified.
simple squamous
a single layer of flat, irregular cells of the epithelial tissue.
stratified squamous epithelium
tissues with many layers of these same cells
transitional epithelium
organs with great deal and size as they work are lined with transitional epithelium which is capable of great expansion but returns to its original form once tension is relaxed.
EX: once the bladder is emptied.
a clear sticky fluid
goblet cells
the air that we breath passes over epithelium that lines with the passageways of the respitory system. Muscus secrecting goblet cells, named after their shape, are scarrtered among the pseudodtratified epithelial cells.
the epithelial cells also have tiny hairlike projections called cilia. together the cilia and mucus help the dust and other foreign particles that could otherwise reach our lungs and damange them.
adipose tissue.
contains cells that are able to store large amounts of fat.
a flexable white protein
is an organ specialized to produce a substace that is sent out to other parts of the body.
exocrine glands
have ducts or tubes to carry secrections away from the gland. The secretions may be carried to another organ, to a body cavity, or to the body surface.
endrocrine glands
secrete directly into the blood, which then carries their secretions to another area of the body. These secretions called hormones have effects on specific tissue known as target tissue.
connective tissue has large amounts of nonliving material between cells, this intercellular background material, or Matrix contains varying amounts of water, fibers, and hard minerals.
liquid connective tissue
blood and lymph, the fluid that cirrculates in the lymphatic system.
soft connective tissue
loosley held together with semi liquid material between the cells; includes adipose (fat) and areolar (loose) connective tissue.
fibrous connective tissue
most connective tissue contains some fiers, but this type is densely packed with them. Cells called fiberblast produce the fibers in the connective tissue.
the word ending blast
refers to young and active cells
hard connective tissue
has a very firm consistency, as in cartilage, or is hardened by minerals in the matrix as in bone.
mesothelium tissue
the thin epithelium of the serous membranes is a smooth, llistening kind of tissue called the mesothelium. The membrane itself may be referred to as the serosa. There are three kinds of serous membranes: The Pleurae, or pleuras, line the thoracic cavity and cover each lung, Serous Pericarduim: forms part of a sac that encloses the heart, which is located in the chest between the lungs, Peritoneum, is the largest serous membrane, it lines the walls of the abdominal cavity, covers the organs of the abdomen, and forms supporting and protective structures within the abdomen.
parietal layer
the portion of the serous membrane attached to the wall of a cavity or sac is known as the parietal layer. The word parietal refers to a wall.
Parietal Pleura
lines the outermost layer of the balloon, as an Ex. Parietal pleura lines the thoracic (chest).
lines the fibrous sac (the fibrous pericardium) that encloses the heart.
In anatomy, a viscus (plural: viscera) is an internal organ of an animal (including humans), in particular an internal organ of the thorax or abdomen. The viscera, when removed from a butchered animal, are known collectively as offal. Internal organs are also known as "innards", or less formally, "guts" (which may also refer to the gastrointestinal tract).

The adjective visceral is used for anything pertaining to the internal organs. Historically, viscera of animals were examined by Roman pagan priests like the haruspices or the augurs in order to divine the future by their shape, dimensions or other factors
A bursa (plural bursae or bursas; Latin: Bursa synovialis) is a small fluid-filled sac located at the point where a muscle or tendon slides across bone. Bursae serve to reduce friction between the two moving surfaces. There are hundreds of them throughout the body. Bursa is Latin for purse, which is what a bursa resembles.
The meninges (singular meninx) is the system of membranes which envelop the central nervous system. The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the central nervous system.
cell membrane
The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or "phospholipid bilayer") is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells.[1] It contains a wide variety of biological molecules, primarily proteins and lipids, which are involved in a vast array of cellular processes, and also serves as the attachment point for both the intracellular cytoskeleton and, if present, the cell wall

is the membrane around the bone. The periosteum is a thin layer of dense, irregular connective tissue membrane that covers the outer surface of a bone in all places except at joints. (The outer surface of bone at joints is covered with a type of hyaline cartilage called "articular cartilage".) As opposed to osseous tissue itself, periosteum has nociceptive nerve endings, making it very sensitive to manipulation. It also provides nourishment by providing the blood supply. The periosteum is connected to the bone by strong collagenous fibers called Sharpey's fibres, which extend to the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae
is the membrane around cartilage
papilloma, (pap-ih-LO-mah)
a tumor that grows in epithelium as a projecting mass. One example is a wart
Adenoma (ad-eh-NO-mah)
an epithelial tumor that grows in and about the glands, adeno means "gland"
Lipoma (Lip-O-mah)
a connective tissue tumor originated in the fatty (adipose) tissue
Osteoma (os-te-O-mah)
a connective tissue tumor that originates in the bones.
Myoma (mi-O-mah)
a tumor of muscle tissue. Rare in voluntary muscle, particulary in the uterus (womb). When found in the uterus, however, it is ordinally called a fibroid.
Angioma (an-je-O-mah)
a tumor that usually is composed of small blood or lymphatic vessels; an example is a birthmark.
Nevus (NE-vus)
a small skin tumor of one of a variety of tissues. Some nevi are better known as moles, some are angiomas. Orginally, these tumors are harmless, but they can become malignant.
Chondroma (kon-DRO-mah)
a tumor of cartilage cells that may remain within the cartilage or develop on the surface, as in the joints. A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern
a procedure for establishing the extent of tumor spread, both at the original site and in other parts of the body (metastases).
is a device that produces a highly concentrated and intense beam of light. It is used to destoy tumors or as a cutting devicde for removing a tumorous growth.
radiation therapy is administered by X-ray machines or by the placement of small amounts of the radioactive material within the involved organ. These materials can be in the form of needles, beads, seeds, or other devices. Some can be taken orally or injected.
chemotherapy is a general term for treatment of drugs, but often the term is understood to mean the treatment of cancer with anineoplastic agents, these agents are drugs that act selectively on actively growing cells, and they are most effective when used in combination.
involves the use of substances that stimulate the immune system as a whole or vaccines prepared specifically against a tumor to control growth.
mucus membrane
The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. They line various body cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs. It is at several places continuous with skin: at the nostrils, the lips, the ears, the genital area, and the anus. The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and gland is termed mucus. The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus.

Body cavities featuring mucous membrane include most of the respiratory system. The glans penis (head of the penis) and glans clitoridis and the inside of the prepuce (foreskin) and clitoral hood are mucous membranes, not skin
sebaceous glands
The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. Sebaceous glands can usually be found in hair-covered areas where they are connected to hair follicles to deposit sebum on the hairs, and bring it to the skin surface along the hair shaft. The structure consisting of hair, hair follicle and sebaceous gland is known as pilosebaceous unit.
lacrimal glands
The lacrimal glands are paired glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film
target tissues
hormones that have effects on specific tissues known as target tissues.
an infection of the peritoneum, which can follow rupture of the appendix and other mishaps in the abdominal region.
neuron or nerve cell
the basit unit of nervous tissue, or nerve cell. A neuron consists of the nerve cell body, plus small branches from the cell called fibers.
is generally short and forms tree like branches. This type of fiber carries messages in the form of nerve impules to the nerve cell body.
is a single fiber, that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body.
is a bundle of such nerve cell fibers held together with connective tissue.
just as wires are insulated to keep them from being short circulated, some axons are insulated and protected by a coating of material called myelin.
Glial cells, commonly called neuroglia or simply glia (greek for "glue"), are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glia are estimated to outnumber neurons by about 10 to 1.[1]

Glial cells provide support and protection for neurons, the other main type of cell in the central nervous system. They are thus known as the "glue" of the nervous system. The four main functions of glial cells are to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons
parietal (par-RI-eh-tal)layer
the word parietal refers to wall. the parietal layer is represented by the outermost layer fo the ballon.
Parietal Pleura
lines the thoracic (chest) cavity.
Parietal Pericardium
lines the fibrous sac (the fibrous pericardium) that encloses the heart.
Visceral Layer
the portion of the serous membrane attached to an order is the visceral layer
Visceral Pericardium
is on the surface of the heart, and each lung surface is covered by visceral pleura.
visceral and parietal layers of a serous membrane
normally are in direct contact with a minimal amount of lubricant between them.
Potential Space
the area between the two layers of the membrane forms a potenial space.That is, it is possible for a space to exist here, although normally one does not.
viscera muscle
it forms walls of the hollow organs in the ventral body cavities, including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and urinary bladder. Together these organs are know as viscera, so smooth muscle is sometimes referred to as visceral mucle.
muscle tissue
muscle tissue is designed to produce movement by contraction of its cells which is called muscle fibers.
skeletal muscle
which works with tendons and bones to move the body. This type of tissue is decribed as involuntary muscle because it can be made to contract by conscious thought.
the tissue of which bones are made, called ossous tissue is much like cartilage in its cellular structure.
the cells that form bones
as these cells mature, they are referred to as osteocytes.
is any wound or local damage to the tissue.
suface lesions
is often called a rash of if raised an eruption.