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165 Cards in this Set

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What main artery is located underneath the pterion?
anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery
If the thin bones of the pterion were fractured, what might this cause?
rupture of the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery can result in a hematoma with increasing pressure on the underlying cortex, death in a few hours.
What type of suture would be needed to save the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery after a blow to the pterion fractured the cranium?
Sphenoparietal suture
The bones of the cranium are joined by interlocking _____ suture joints, except for the mandible which articulates at the synovial temporomandibular joint.
fibrous
what are the Sphenoid and occipital bone are united by during childhood?
hyaline cartilage (synchondrosis)
what are the 8 bones of the neurocranium?
frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid
What part of the cranium Contains the proximal parts of the cranial nerves and the vasculature of the brain?
neurocranium (brain box)
Bones of the calvaria are flat bones derived from ___ ___ tissue that becomes head mesenchyme
neural crest
Flat bones of the calvaria are formed by ____ ossification
intramembranous
the cranium can be divided into which two parts?
neurocranium and viscerocranium
Bones of the cranial base are primarily irregular with significant flat portions, they are formed by ____ ossification or both methods
endochondral (or both includes intramembranous)
What are the bones of the viscerocranium?
Viscerocranium has 14 bones: 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 maxillae, 2 zygomatic, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, mandible, and vomer
what part of the cranium Contains the orbits (eye sockets) and nasal cavities, upper and lower jaws?
viscerocranium
in the dura, Notice that the ____ _____ protrude cranially and leave impressions on the interior superior aspect of the calvaria.
arachnoid granulations
What can be seen between the inner and outer tables of the calvaria?
Diploë
what is the Pericranium?
(periosteum of the cranium)
what are the inner and outer tables?
of the calvaria, the compact bone layers are frequently referred to as the inner and outer tables
what is the cancellous bone between 2 layers of compact bone referred to as in the center?
diploë
What transmits the diploic veins that communicate with the cranial dural sinuses via emissary veins - AND also contains red marrow in vivo?
Diploë
What is seen in the anterior view of the skull?
frontal bones, nasal bones and internasal sutures, zygomatic bones, maxillae, mandible and orbit
from the anterior view of the skul, What forms the skeleton of the forehead (develops as 2 bones)?
Frontal bone (squamous part)
Inferior to the nasal bones is the _____ (pear shaped) aperture, which is the anterior nasal opening of the cranium
piriform
Nasal septum divides nasal cavity in two halves and is predominantly made up of the perpendicular plate of the ____ bone and the ____ , but also includes the palatine bone.
ethmoid ; vomer
What are the (curved bony plates) occupy lateral wall of nasal cavity?
Nasal conchae
Superior and middle conchae are part of the _____ bone. The inferior nasal conchae are individual bones.
ethmoid
which bones make up the prominence of the upper cheek ?
Zygomatic bones
what bone forms the upper jaw and contain the alveolar process which include the tooth sockets (alveoli)?
Maxillae
Paired maxillae unite at the ____ suture.
intermaxillary
What is the lower jaw bone called?
Mandible
Which bone is easily injured by a sharp upward blow to the nose, causing bone fragments to pass through the ciribiform plate? What does this cause?
ethmoid bone. Fragments through cribriform plate into the meninges or brain tissue. This can cause leakage of cerebrospinal fluid into the nasal cavity and maybe followed by the spread of infection from the nasal cavity to the brain
If the ehtmoid bone is fractured, fragments might pierce what plate? (causing damage to the meninges and brain tissue - and leading to a brain infection)
ciribiform plate
if the ciribiform plate is pierce by bone fragments , as in a collision, what might leak into the nasal cavity?
This can cause leakage of cerebrospinal fluid into the nasal cavity and maybe followed by the spread of infection from the nasal cavity to the brain
What foramina transmit terminal sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve?
"anterior foramina (4) - 1) Supraorbital notch/foramen transmits the supraorbital nerve and vessels 2) Zygomaticofacial foramen transmits the zygomaticofacial nerve 3) Infraorbital foramen transmits the infraorbital nerve and vessels. 4) Mental foramen transmits the mental nerve and vessels
____ _____ are relatively sharp ridges and a blow here, such as during a boxing match or fist fight, may lacerate the skin and cause bleeding. Tissue fluid and blood can accumulate around the orbit and into the thin skin of the eyelids leaving a “black eye” (echymosis).
Superciliary arches
____ are fibrous joints between the bones of the skull
Sutures
When do sutures of the calvaria eventually disappear?
At ages 30-40 the sutures of the calvaria begin obliteration on the internal surface and about 10 years later on the external surface
what disease is the premature closure of the cranial sutures? (causing cranial malformations 1/2000 births)
Craniosynostosis
which suture lies between the frontal bone and the 2 parietal bones ?
Coronal
which suture lies between the 2 parietal bones?
Sagittal
which suture lies between the parietal bone and the squamous part of the temporal bone?
Squamous
which suture lies between the two parietal bones and the occipital bone?
Lambdoid suture (resembles Greek letter λ)
There is also a highest nuchal line, which provides attachment for the ___ ____.
galea aponeurotica
what are Sutural bones occurring along the lambdoid suture, or on the lateral aspect, also known as?
Wormian bones
What bone has superior and inferior temporal lines
parietal
what bone has mastoid and styloid processes, zygomatic arch, external acoustic meatus, and a squamous part?
Temporal
what bone is in the medial wall of the orbit?
Lacrimal
what bone has an angle, mental protuberance, body, and ramus?
Mandible
what is the junction of lambdoid and sagittal sutures known as?
Lambda
what is the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures known as?
Bregma
what is the junction of frontal, parietal, temporal bones, and greater wing of the sphenoid on the lateral aspect of the skull known as?
Pterion
what is a thin part of the calvaria overlying anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery?
Pterion
what is the intersection of the frontal and 2 nasal bones known as?
Nasion
what is the highest point of the superior aspect of the skull?
Vertex
what is the prominence of frontal bone above root of nose (depression between the supercilliary arches) known as?
Glabella
A fracture at the pterion, the thinnest part of the calvaria may lacerate the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery causing what?
a epidural hematoma.
what can cause a hematoma that may compress the lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere and result in herniation of the medial part of the temporal lobe through the tentorial notch of dura?
pterion fracture with damage to middle meningeal a.
what kind of fracture can cause limb weakness, dilated pupil from compression of the oculomotor nerve, and deterioration of cardiovascular and respiratory function?
pterion fracture with damage to middle meningeal a.
A pterion fracture may casue neurological signs up to several ____ after the initial injury, as blood accumulates to the point at which pressure on the brain reaches a critical value.
hours
what are 3 cranial fossae?
ant, mid, post
which cranial fossa is the Shallowest of the 3 fossae?
Anterior Cranial Fossa
which fossa is Made up of frontal bone, ethmoid, body and lesser wings of sphenoid?
Anterior Cranial Fossa
which fossa is Butterfly shaped?
Middle Cranial Fossa
which cranial fossa Contains the sella turcica?
Middle Cranial Fossa
which cranial fossa is the Largest and deepest, comprised mostly of occipital bone?
Posterior Cranial Fossa
which fossa Holds cerebellum, pons, and medulla?
Posterior Cranial Fossa
which fossa has the following?: Foramen cecum
Anterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Olfactory foramina of cribriform plate
Anterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina
Anterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Optic canal
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Superior orbital fissure
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Foramen rotundum
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Foramen ovale
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Foramen spinosum
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Carotid canal
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Hiatuses and canals for the greater and lesser petrosal nerves
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Foramen lacerum (only a foramen in a preserved skull, in life it is filled with cartilage)
Middle cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Internal acoustic meatus
Posterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Jugular foramen
Posterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Hypoglossal canal
Posterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Foramen magnum
Posterior cranial fossa
which fossa has the following?: Condylar canal
Posterior cranial fossa
What passes through the optic canal?
1. Optic nerve (CN II) 2. Opthalamic a.
the Optic nerve (CN II) passes through which opening in the cranial fossa?
middle cranial fossa - optic canal
Ophthalmic artery passes through which opening in the cranial fossa?
middle cranial fossa - optic canal
what passes through the Superior orbital fissure?
ALTOS! Abducent nerve (CN VI), Lacrimal frontal and nasociliary branches of opthalamic nerve, Trochlear nerve (CN IV), Occulomotor nerve (CN III), Superior opthalamic vein
Oculomotor nerve (CN III) passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure
Trochlear nerve (CN IV) passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure
Lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure
Abducent nerve (CN VI) passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure
Superior ophthalmic vein passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure
what passes through the Foramen rotundum?
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2) passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - foramen rotundum
what passes through the Foramen ovale?
MAL - Mandibular nerve (V3), Accessory meningeal a. , Lesser petrosal nerve
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - foramen ovale
Accessory meningeal artery passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - foramen ovale
Lesser petrosal nerve passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - foramen ovale
what passes through Foramen spinosum?
4M's! Middle Meningeal artery and vein, Meningeal branch of Mandibular nerve (V3)
Middle meningeal artery and vein passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - foramen spinosum
Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve V3 passes through which opening and cranial fossa?
Middle cranial fossa - foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum contains what structures?
It is filled with cartilage. The greater petrosal nerve passes horizontally across foramen lacerum and traverses the cartilage. (carotid artery and plexus passes over this)
petrosal nerve traverses cartilage of what cranial structure, and in what fossa?
middle cranial fossa - foramen lacerum (filled with cartilage)
what structures pass through the Internal acoustic meatus?
FLV flash file! Facial nerve (CN VII), Labryinthe Artery, Vestibulocochlaear nerve (CN VIII)
Facial nerve (CN VII) passes through which opening and in what fossa?
Posterior Cranial Fossa - internal acoustic meatus
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) passes through which opening and in what fossa?
Posterior Cranial Fossa - internal acoustic meatus
Labyrinthine artery passes through which opening and in what fossa?
Posterior Cranial Fossa - internal acoustic meatus
what structures pass through the Jugular foramen?
Pedantic GLOSSy VAGinas Assaulted SIGfreid's Manhood - petrosal sinus (inferior), glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), Vagus nerve (CN X), Accessory nerve (CN XI), Sigmoid sinus, Posterior meningeal artery
Inferior petrosal sinus passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa - jugular foramen
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa - jugular foramen
Vagus nerve (CN X) passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa - jugular foramen
Accessory nerve (CN XI) passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa - jugular foramen
Sigmoid sinus passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa - jugular foramen
Posterior meningeal artery passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa - jugular foramen
what are the contents of the Hypoglossal canal?
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Hypoglossal nerve (XII) passes through which opening and in what fossa?
posterior cranial fossa hypoglossal canal
what are the structures within the Foramen magnum?
medulla oblongota, meninges, meningeal branches of vert arteries, vert arteries, spinal roots of accessory nerves.
Spinal roots of accessory nerves is in what fossa and in what foramen?
posterior cranial fossa foramen magnum
The hard palate is formed by the palatine process of the ____ bone anteriorly and the horizontal plates of the ____ bone posteriorly
maxillae; palatine
Superior to the posterior edge of the palate are 2 large openings, the _____ (posterior nasal apertures)
choanae
Incisive foramen transmits which nerve?
the nasopalatine nerve. It is posterior to the central incisor teeth (front teeth)
TRUE FALSE - Greater & lesser palatine foramina transmit the greater & lesser palatine nerves and vessels and the nasopalatine nerve.
FALSE - only because the nasopalatine nerve passes through the incisve foramen (anterior part of palate).
Stylomastoid foramen transmits which nerve?
the facial nerve (VII)
what transmits the internal carotid artery and accompanying sympathetic plexus?
Carotid canal
The ____ fontanelle is the largest and easiest to palpate
anterior
what are Regions of membrane between skull bones that are not yet ossified in the infant skull?
fontanelles
what allows deformation of the calvaria during the birth process?
Fibrous sutures and fontanelles
_____ ____ of the calvaria permit the cranium to enlarge through childhood (15-16 years) and there after enlargement is due to bone thickening for 3-4 years.
Fibrous sutures
The membrane of a fontanelle is blended with the ____ externally, and the ______ _____ internally.
pericranium , dura matter
What allows skull deformation during birth and allow the continued growth of the brain.
fontanelles
The fontanelles are usually closed by the ____ year.
2nd
in the birthing process, one ____ bone slightly overrides the other.
parietal
The Mandibular symphysis between the 2 developing parts of the mandible closes during the ___ year. Intermaxillary suture can be identified in the adult, there are 2 maxillae
2nd
The Metopic suture between 2 developing frontal bones allows skull deformation and closes during the ____ year leaving 1 frontal bone in the adult (there is short remnant of the metopic suture superior to the nasion)
6th
what is contained within: Ant Cranial fossa - Foramen Cecum?
nasal emissary vein (1% of pop)
what is contained within: Ant Cranial fossa - ciribriform foramina in cribriform plate?
axons of olfactory cells in olfactory epithelium that form olfactory nerves, (CN I)
what is contained within: Ant Cranial fossa - ant and post ethmoidal foramina?
vessels and nerves with same names as foramina
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - optic canals?
optic nerves CN II, and opthalamic arteries
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure?
ophthalamic veins, ophthalamic nerve (CN V1) CN III,IV, VI. And sympathetic fibers
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - foramen rotundum?
maxillary nerve (CN V2)
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - foramen ovale?
mandibular nerve (CN V3) and acessory meningeal artery
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - foramen spinosum?
middle meningeal artery and vein, and meningeal branch of CN V3.
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - foramen lacerum?
internal carotid artery, with its sympathetic and venous plexus.
what is contained within: Middle Cranial fossa - groove or hiatus of greater petrosal nerve?
greater petrosal nerve and petrosal branch of middle meningeal artery.
what is contained within: Posterior Cranial fossa - foramen magnum?
medulla and meninges, vert arteries, CN XI, dural veins, ant and post spinal arteries
what is contained within: Posterior Cranial fossa - jugular formaen?
CN IX, X, and XI, sup bulb of internal jugular vein, inf petrosal and sigmoid sinuses, and meningeal branches of ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries
what is contained within: Posterior Cranial fossa - hypoglossal canal?
hypoglossal nerve CN XII
what is contained within: Posterior Cranial fossa - condylar canal?
emissary vein that passes from sigmoid sinus to vertebral veins in neck
what is contained within: Posterior Cranial fossa - mastoid foramen?
mastoid emissary vein from sigmoid sinus and meningeal branch of occipital artery.
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: nasal emissary vein (1% of pop)
Ant Cranial fossa - Foramen Cecum
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: axons of olfactory cells in olfactory epithelium that form olfactory nerves, (CN I)
Ant Cranial fossa - ciribriform foramina in cribriform plate
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: ethmoidal vessels and nerves
Ant Cranial fossa - ant and post ethmoidal foramina
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: optic nerves CN II, and opthalamic arteries
Middle Cranial fossa - optic canals
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: ophthalamic veins, ophthalamic nerve (CN V1) CN III,IV, VI. And sympathetic fibers
Middle Cranial fossa - superior orbital fissure
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Middle Cranial fossa - foramen rotundum
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: mandibular nerve (CN V3) and acessory meningeal artery
Middle Cranial fossa - foramen ovale
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: middle meningeal artery and vein, and meningeal branch of CN V3.
Middle Cranial fossa - foramen spinosum
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: internal carotid artery, with its sympathetic and venous plexus.
Middle Cranial fossa - foramen lacerum
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: greater petrosal nerve and petrosal branch of middle meningeal artery.
Middle Cranial fossa - groove or hiatus of greater petrosal nerve
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: medulla and meninges, vert arteries, CN XI, dural veins, ant and post spinal arteries
Posterior Cranial fossa - foramen magnum
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: CN IX, X, and XI, sup bulb of internal jugular vein, inf petrosal and sigmoid sinuses, and meningeal branches of ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries
Posterior Cranial fossa - jugular formaen
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: hypoglossal nerve CN XII
Posterior Cranial fossa - hypoglossal canal
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: emissary vein that passes from sigmoid sinus to vertebral veins in neck
Posterior Cranial fossa - condylar canal
what foramen do the following structures pass through?: mastoid emissary vein from sigmoid sinus and meningeal branch of occipital artery.
Posterior Cranial fossa - mastoid foramen
Sinuses Lateral Photograph
Sinuses Lateral Photograph
Frontal
Ethmoid
Maxillary
Sphenoid
Pharynx
Sinuses PA Radiograph
Sinuses PA Radiograph
Frontal sinus
Ethmoid sinus
Maxillary sinus