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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
True or False: agriculture is recent?
True
For millions of years humans used _______ plants and animals
Wild
What are those that collect their food called?
Hunters & gathers
These are the general features for what type of society? Small communites, Nomadic, no individual land rights, no classes, no full-time specialists, and a division of labor by age and sex.
Hunters & gathers
What is an example of Hunters & gathers?
!Kung
True or False: The !Kung spend many hours a day collecting food.
False
Where are the !Kung located
South Africa
What are three examples of food production?
Horticulture, pastoralism, and intensive agriculture
When were plants and animals domesticated (approx)
10,000 years ago
Did Horticulture start in one place and spread?
No, it started in many locations
What kind of Horticulture is practiced in Yanomamo (Brazil, Venezuela)?
Slash and Burn
In IA are the feilds cultivated and permanent?
Yes
In IA do they depend on rain?
No, they have fertilizer and irrigation systems
In IA are plows used?
Yes
In IA are animal plows used?
Yes, but also tractor plows
What are these general features of? Towns and cities, craft specialization, complex political organizations, differences with wealth, power, and land owndership
Intensive Agriculture
What is pastoralism?
Domesticated herds of animals.
Which is more important (in pastoralism) the meat or the milk/blood?
Milk/blood. Ew...
Is trade important in pastoralism?
Yes (with the agriculutre groups)
What are the general features of Pastoralists? (4)
They're nomadic, live in small communites, the animals are owned by indiviuals or familes, and trade is frequent
What are the three basic factors of economic systems?
1. Allocation (ownership)
2. Conversion (production)
3. Distribution
What is not an unusual incentive for labor?
Profit
what is the universal divison of labor?
Age and gender
What are the three general types of goods and services?
Reciprocity, Redistribution, and market (commercial)
What is reciprocity?
giving and taking without money - gifts, trade
What is generalized reciprocity?
Giving with no immediate return
What is an example of generalized reciprocity?
!Kung and the distribution of large game.
What is Balanced reciprocity?
Reciprocity that expects immediate return.
What is an example of balanced reciprocity?
Trobian islanders and their shell necklaces for arm bands
What does it mean for reciprocity to be used as a leveling device?
Reciprocity gift giving, it equalizes the distribution of goods between communites
What are two examples of reciprocity being used as a leveling device?
The giving of pigs in New Guinea and the Native American Potlatch
What is redistribution?
When goods are accumulated by a person and later distributed
What type of organization does a redistribution require?
Political
Redistribution is usually...
Agriculture
What is a market/ commerical exchange?
Where prices are based on suppy and demand
Most market transactions involve...
Money
What is a peasant economy?
One that reguarly sells the surplus but isn't fully commerical
What is social stratification?
Variation in degree of social inequality
What are the three advantages to social stratifcation?
1. Wealth
2. Power
3. Prestige
Egalitarian, Rank, and Class are three types of what?
Stratifited society
What is a eglitarian society?
One that is most common in hunting &gathering groups and the positions depend on ability (and there's lots of sharing, not stratified)
What are some examples of a egalitarian society?
!Kung and Foragers
What is a rank society?
Where social groups have unequal access to prestige or status (wealth not nessarily important)
A rank society usual is composed of...
Food producers
What are some examples of a rank soceity?
Kwakiutl and the Trobriand Islanders
A ______ is a category of people who have the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power and prestige
Class
The two types of class societies are?
Open and caste
What is an open society?
One which social mobility is possible (moving from one class to another - America)
What is a caste society?
The classes are close and membership is only by birth (India)
When was the first archeological evidence of inequality found?
Not before 8000 years ago, around the time agriculture emerged
Burials with elite grave goods are an example of...
The emergence of stratification
What is marriage?
It is anapproved sexual and economic union between a man and a woman
What is the Nayar Exception
This is where there is no permanent sexual and economic cooperation by the husband
Why is marriage universal?
It is an adaptive, universla soltuion to solve problems.
Gender division of labor, prolonged infant dependency and sexual competition are problems solved by...
Marriage
What marks the onset of marriage?
Many societies have ceremonies, others have other social signals
A bride pricee, bride service, exchange, or dowry are all examples of...
The economic aspects of marriage that transitions in about 75% of societies
What is a bride price?
The most common economic aspect that involves money or goods going to the bride's family
What is bride service?
The second most common economic aspect that involes the groom working for the brides family
What is the exchange of females?
This is a not common economic aspect which involes a female member of the grooms family being traded for the bride
What is a dowry?
Goods from brides family given to the bride
What is a restrictions on marriage?
The universal taboo is incest
Childhood-familiarity theory, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, Family-disruption theory, Cooperation theory, and the Inbreeding theory are all examples of...
Five theories of the incest taboo
What is an arranged marriage
The marriage is arrangaed by family
What is Exogamy?
Marriage outside group
What is endogamy?
marriage inside group
What is a cross cousin marriage?
The father's sister's child or the mother's brother's child
What is a parallel-cousin marriage?
The father's brother's child or the mother's sister's child
What is levirate?
Where the widow marries the brother of her dead husband
What is sororate?
Where the woman marries her dead sister's husband.
What is monogamy?
One man and one woman at a time
What is polygamy?
Plural marriage
What is Polynyny?
Man has more than one wife (this is allowed in most societies studied)
What is polyandry?
One woman married to several men (very rare)

Tibet - land scarce
What is the family?
The social and economic unit
What are the two common categories of family?
Extended and nuclear
Patrilocal is...
New couple lives with groom's parents
Matrilocal is...
New couple live with bride's parents
Bilocal is...
May live with either parent
Avunculocal...
Live with the groom's mother's brother
Neolocal is..
Couple live apart form either parent
What is kinship?
Connections prove main struction of social action
Patrilineal
Related through men (child belongs to fathers group)
Matrilienal
related through men (child belongs to mothers group)
Ambilineal
related through men or women (side of choice)
Double descent
affiliated with patrilineal for some purposes and matrilineal for others
Bilateral kinship
Both sides of relatives equally important
Unilineal descent
calcuclae descent through one side
Lineages, clans, phratries, and moieties are...
types of unilineal descent groups
Lineage
Trace descent from known common ancestor
Clans
Assume common ancestor but not actually known
Totems
Plants or animals refer to kin group
Phraties
groups composed of more than one clan
moieties
society dived into two halves
Kinship terminonly
system of classifcation terms
Consanguineal kin
related through blood
Affineal kin
related through marriage
On the kinship chart ego is...
a reference point
on the kinship chart a circle is..
a female
on the kinship chart a triangle is...
a male
Inuit/Eskimo, Omaha, Crow, Irqouis, Dudanese, and Hawaiian are...
The six major examples of kinship terminoly systems
Inuit or Eskimo term system
mother, father, sister, brother, son, daughter - not grouped with cousins or uncles (American system)
Hawaiian term system
groups of relatives of same sex and generation
What is an associaton?
An organized group not based on kinship or territory
What is a non voluntary association?
One that is based on age or sex and includes "age-sets" and "unisex"
What is an age-grade?
a culturall distinguished range
What is and age-set?
Group of person f simly age and same sex that move through stages together
What is a unisex association?
Where the membership is one sex
What is a voluntary association?
Regional or ethnic assiociations
alsot interest groups (occupation, political, recreational, charitable, social clubs etc)