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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When do cows have more fat in their milk? Why?
They have higher fat in winter vs. summer because they are eating hay in winter vs. grazing
Does the % fat in milk increase during lactation? How much could it go up?
yep! goes up ~0.5%
When during milking is there more fat in the milk? What is the % difference?
in the hindmilk. There is about a 0.2% change
Who has higher milk fat -- heifers or cows?
heifers because they produce less milk
When does the greatest variation in milk composition occur?
right after calving
Colostrum: What is it?
How long is the transition period?
How many milkings till milk is good again?
- milk present in udder at birth
- ~ 3 day transition
-not savable until after 6 milkings
What is in colostrum?
vitamins A and D
most minerals
Why is colostrum important? What does colostrum have that makes it so important?
newborn doesn't have immune system. Colostrum has immune globulins that is essential to the newborn so it lives
How many glands and teats does a cow have?
4 and 4
How many glands and teats does a horse have?
4 and 2
How many glands and teats do sheep and goats have?
2 and 2
What animals are multiparous?
sow, bitch
What do the milk ducts connect together?
the alveoli and the gland sistern
what is the gland sistern?
a large collection area that connects the milk ducts and teat
what is the streak canal?
The canal where milk passes from the teat sistern to the outside of the body
What is the alveolus?
the secretory tissue of the mammary glad. It has its own blood supply from which milk constituents are obtained by epithelial cells lining the alveolus
What is the alveolus lumen?
The place where milk collects once is it made and waits to be let down into the ducts
what are myoepitheial cells?
Cells on the outside of the alveolus. They contract to bring milk from the alveolus to the ducts
What does estrogen stimulate?
the duct and sistern
What does progesterone stimulate?
alveoli growth
What is growth hormone responsible for?
the initiation of lactation
What occurs so that the myoepithelial cells are contracted?
the prosterior pitutiary releases oxytocin which stimulates to myoepithlial cells to contract.
what is periostium?
the covering of a bone
Where on the body is the best way to indicate mature size
the hips!
Do all animals go through the same growth curve?
Who gains faster: LF or SM animals?
large frame
Who need more nutrients? (LF or SM)
large frame
When fed to a constant weight, who will gain faster and have a better F/G?
large frame
When fed to a constant carcass composition, LF cattle usually: (3 things)
-are less efficient
-slight advantage in ADG
-not any adv. in days on feed
Do you want to feed to a body composition or a fixed weight?
body composition
Are the teats, cistern, ducts and glands already on the udder when a female calf is born?
at puberty: female's estrogen stimulates what?
What does progesterone stimulate?
estrogen = growth of ducts
progesterone = secretory tissues (alveoli)
How many lbs of milk can an avg. udder hold?
about 50 lbs
What stimulates oxytocin?
the prosterior petutitary
What stimulates prolactin?
the anterior petutitary
holstein's % milkfat
Ayrshire's % milkfat
Brown Swiss' % milkfat
Guernsey's % milkfat
Jersey's % milkfat