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102 Cards in this Set

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cow-calf operation
a managment unit that maintains a breeding herd and produces weaned calves
feeder (class or type of animal)
animals that need further feeding prior to slaughter
stocker
weaned cattle that are fed high-roughage diets (including grazing) before going into the feedlot
grade or commercial
a carcas grade of cattle
purebred
an animal eligible for registry with a recognized breed association
Registered
recorded in the herdbook of a breed
bred
female has been mated to the male. usually indicates that female is pregnant
band (horses or sheep)
a relatively large group of range sheep
flock
a group of sheep or poultry
herd
a group of animals
buck
a male sheep or goat (usually denotes animals of breeding age)
bull
a bovine male
bullock
a young bull, usually less than 20 months old
calve
giving birth to a calf. same as parturition
dam
female parent
farrow
to give birth to pigs
heifer
a young female bovine cow before she has had her first calf
heiferette
a heifer that has calved once, after which she is fed for slaughter
hinny
the offspring that results from crossing a stallion with a female donkey
jack
a male donkey
jennet
a female donkey
mule
corssing a male donkey and a female horse
parturition
the process of giving birth
ram
a sexually mature male sheep
shoat
a young pig of either sex
shrink
loss of weight, commonly used in the loss in liveweight when animals are marketed for loss in weight from grease wool to clean wool
sire
male parent
castrate
cutting off an animals balls
spay
to remove the overies
stag
castrated male animals that have reached sexual maturity prior to castration
stud
usually the same as a stallion
beef
the meat from cattle -- not calves
boxed beef
cuts of beef put in boxes for shipping from packing plant to retailers.
pork
meat from swine
veal
the meat of a calf
weaning
separating young animals from their dams so that the offspring can no longer suckle
weanling
an animal of weaning age
yearling
animals that are approx. 1 year old
forb
weedy or broadleaf plants that serve as pasture for animals
browse
woody or brushy plants
brockle-faced
white-faced with other colors splotched on the face and head
colostrum
the first milk given by a female after delivery of her young. It is high in antibodies that protect young animals from invading microorganisms
creep
an enclosure in which young can enter to obtain feed but larger animals cannot enter (called creep feeding)
cwt
an abbreviation for hundredweight (100 lbs)
per capita
per person
hide
skins from animals
pelt
the natural, whole skin covering, including hair, skin or wool
skins
hides from smaller animals such as pigs, sheep, goats
gametes
sex cells
spermatogenesis
production of sperm
oogenesis
production of ova
meiosis
cell division where gametes are formed
genotype
genetic makeup of an animal
phenotype
characteristics that can be seen
epistasis
when a gene/gene paid masks the expression of other genes
locus
the location of a gene on the chromosome
lack of dominance
heterozygous animals show a phenotype that is different from either homozygous phenotype and is usually intermediate
complete dominance
unlike genes occupy corresponding loci (dominant gene is expressed)
overdominance
heterozygotes possess greater vigor or are more desirable in other ways (producing more milk, more fertile, etc) than either of the two homozygotes. HETEROSIS
dressing percent
hot carcas weight/live slaughter weight
pregnancy rate
# cows pregnant/#cows exposed
% calf crop
# cows weaned/#cows exposed
average daily gain
final wt-initial wt/ days between weighing
feed efficiency
lbs feed consumed/lbs gained
genus and species of the horse
equus caballus
genus and species of the cow
bos taurus
genus and species of the sheep
ovis aries
genus and species of the pig
sus scrofa domesticus
calving interval
the interval from having one calf to having another calf
contemporaries
animals that are of the same sex that have the same management
nicking
the way in which certain lines, strains or breeds perform when mated together.
parity
the number of different times a female has had offspring
selection
differentially reproducing what one wants in a herd or flock
artificial insemination
the introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract by a technique other than natural service
amnion
a fluid filled membrane located next to the fetus
anestrous
period of time when female is not in estrus
caruncle
the "buttons" on the ruminant uterus where the cotyledons on the fetal membrane attach
chorion
the outermost layer of fetal membranes
cotyledon
an area of the placenta that interfaces with the uterine lining to allow nutrients and wastes to pass from the mother to the developing young.
dystocia
difficulty giving birth
flushing
placing females on a gaining level of nutrition before breeding to stimulate greater ovulation rates
freemartin
female born twin to a bull
multiparous
having had two or more pregnancies resulting in viable fetuses
postpartum
period after birth
postpartum interval
the length of time from parturition to when the dam is again pregnant
open (females)
refers to nonpregnant females
wet
which animal?
a milking female
cattle
winking
indication of estrus in the mare where the vulva opens and closes
adipose
fat cells or fat tissue
break joint
refers to point on a lamb carcass where the foot and pastern are removed at the cartilaginous junction of the front leg
finish
the degree of fatness on an animal
spool joint
used to ID what kind of carcass?
the joint where the foot and pastern are removed from the front leg; used to ID a mutton carcass
probe
a device used to measure backfat thickness in pigs and cattle
monogastric
having only one stomach or only one compartment in the stomach
nonruminant
simple stomach or monogastric animal
ruminant
a mamml whose stomach has four parts: rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
soilage
green forage that is cut and brought to animals as food
bolus
regurgitated food
ration
the amount of total feed fed to an animal over a 24 hour period
digestibility
the quality of being digestible.
feed efficiency
the amount of gain made per unit of feed
on full feed
a term that refers to animals that are recieving all the feed they will consume