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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Energy Feeds
•Concentrates- feed grains and grain by-products
•<20% CP, <18% CF
•typically > 3000 Kcal/kg ME
•low fiber, low and variable protein
•low calcium and variab;e phosphorus, low in vitamins A & D, high thiamin, niacin is unavailable for swine
•phosphorus bound to inositol (phytic acid) only 30-50% available to non-ruminant livestock
Most Commonly Used Energy Feeds in the US:
2)Grain Sorghum
Energy feed
•Annual US production in excess of 10 billion bushels
•Relative feeding value (RFV)=100%
•Phosphorus is average, calcium is low
•Fed on air dry basis or high moisture
• Normally fed processed- ground, cracked, flaked
US Corn us: fuel production, food production, exports, feed and residual
Grain Sorghum
•Produced and fed mostly in SW US
•Production in US 278 billion
•Drought and heat tolerant
•RFV=95% of corn, lower ME, lower TDN
•Bird resistant varieties; seed caught high in tannins and polyphenolic acids
•Grown specifically for animal feds in US
normally fed processed; flaked, rolled
•US production- 93 million bushels
•Cool season annual, may be grazed
•RFV=80% of corn, much lower ME, lower TDN
•Excellent grain for horses and young animals
•<20% replacement of corn for growing-finishing swine
•<25% replacement of corn for finishing cattle
•Normally fed: whole or crimped for horses “safe feed”, ground for swine or poultry
•oat groats
•US production- 180 million bushels
•Grown in north central and far west US
•Grown to provide malt for beer
•Ideal concentrate for cattle
•Limit fed to swine because of fiber
•Most common feed grain in Europe imparts bleached color to animal fat
•Normally fed: flaked or ground for cattle ground for swine
•US production- 7 million bushels
•Cool season annual, north Florida winter pasture grass; not harvested for grain, heavily graved
•Grain is less palatable of all cereals
•Ergot fungus toxicity: “back fungus”: reduces blood flow to extremities- results in abortion, necrosis of hooves, tip of ear, lower limbs
•RFV=70% of corn
•Normally fed: ground but limited to no more then 30% of livestock daily rations
•US production: 1.8 billion bushels
•Soft and hard red winter varieties/ white winter varieties; Hard red and white spring; varieties; Soft white spring; Durum
•Widely grown in US for bread grain, flour, pasta
•Highly palatable but may compact if ground too fine
•RFV= 105% of corn
•Use of wheat in human breads and pastries makes it too expensive for livestock feeds
•Normally fed as coarse ground
•Hexaploid cross (wheatXrye)
•May contain ergot, toxicity and palatability problems
•Highest protein of all cereals but like other cereals, lysine deficient
•No established US market
•Limit to <50% of livestock daily ration
By-Product Energy Feeds
Wheat bran; Wheat midds and shorts;Dried Citrus Pulp; Dried Beet Pulp
Wheat bran:
seed coat(removed in manufacture of flour); source of fiber- has laxative effect; higher phosphorus; normally limited to 10-15% of diet due to laxative effect
Wheat midds and shorts:
remain from flour milling; contains particles of brain, endosperm and germ; higher in TDN, lower in fiber then bran
Dried Citrus Pulp:
fed mainly to dairy and beef cattle; high in Ca and K
Dried Beet Pulp:
residue after sugar removed from beets; high CF, but highly digestable; very palatable, excellent laxative, better then wheat bran; fed to dairy cattle, feedlot cattle and breeding swine
Dried Bakery Waste
•Stale, unused breads, raw dough
•Highly digestable
•Used in swine and poultry diets
Dried Whey
•Portion of milk after casein and fat have been removed
•High in lactose, Ca and P
•Used primarily in diets for early weaned animals
•Different sources: blackstrap(cane sugar), beer, citrus, wood, corn
•Excellent source of energy
•Improves palatability, reduces dustiness
•Binder for pelleting
•Restricted to 10-15% due to laxative effect
•Molasses brix: a qualative measure based on sugar percentage
Food Residual
•Commonly called: food waste, garbage, plate scrapings
•Composition (extremely variable):
o15-25% fat
o14-18% protein
o2-10% fiber
•Processing: add wheat mims then dry and pellet
Animal/ Vegetable Lipid Sources:
• Beef: Tallow
• Pork: Lard
• Poultry fat
• Restaurant grease (fryers, grease traps)
Animal/ Vegetable Lipid source facts:
• Energy content: 7,000-7,900 Kcal/kg (corn 3,300)
• 2.25 Energy content of carbohydrates or protein
• Improves palatability
• Improves pelleting
• Improves texture and color
• Also: reduces dustiness of diets thus reducing dust in barns and mills, reduces machinery wear by acting as an internal lubricant
Why use lipid source? WHen is this important?
Increases energy density in diet
o When is this important?: summer, high temperatures -> decreased food intake; therefore, need more calories in smaller amount
Protein Supplements: General Characteristics
•Ingredients that contain at least 20% crude protein (DMB) from animal or plant origin
•Typically by-products from manufacture of a more profitable food/feed
•May consist of animal tissue, oil meals or ensiled material
•May consist of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) fed to ruminants
•Used to balance animal feeds to meet essential amino acids for growth an production
•Crude fiber component is variable among protein supplements: CF is high in plant source; low in animal source
•Energy content of these supplements is similar to energy feeds
•Can be excellent sources of P
•One of the most expensive ingredients in livestock feed
Protein Supplements of Plant Origin
Soy Bean Meal:Cotton Seed Meal; Peanut Meal; and Additional Oil Seed Meals
Soy Bean Meal:
•Two major soy meals: CP=48.5%; CP=44.0%
•By-product of crushing or extracting whole soybeans (US produces 2.1X10^9 Bu/Yr)
•Used in human food and manufacturing industries (lubricants, plastics, ink etc)
•Standard reference protein supplement for US feeds
•Other US protein supplements evaluated and priced on soy meal
•Most abundant, most complete amino acid source from plants
•Heating inactivates growth inhibitors (ie: trypsin inhibitor)
Cotton Seed Meal:
•Two major cotton seed meals: expeller CP=36.8; solvent CP=41.7
•By-product of “crushing” and extracting whole cottonseed to remove oil
•Protein quality high for ruminants but low for non-ruminant (lysine deficiency)
•Contains phytotoxin “gossypol” must “degossypolize” to safely feed
•Signs of gossypol toxicity:
oPneumonia-like symptoms
oLiver damage and abdominal edema
oFetal death and abortions
oMale sterility (decreased spermatogenesis)
•May meet <30% of protein in swine finishing diets (pigs 200-260 lbs) if degossypolized
•May meet 100% or protein for beef cattle finishing diets if degossypolized
Peanut Meal:
•Two major componens: expeller CP=49.2, solvent CP= 49
•By-product of “crushing” and extracting whole peanuts to remove oil
•Low in lysine and methionine
•May contain mycotoxins from Aspergillis
•Feed at <10% of diet or can replace no more then 0% of soy meal for non-ruminants
•May meet 100% or protein for ruminants
Additional Oil Seed Meals
Additional Oil Seed Meals:
linseed, sunflower, rapeseed (canola), safflower
Misc Plant Protein Supplements:
Corn Glutten Meal, Distillers Dried Grains, Brewers Dried Grains
Protein Supplements of Animal Origin
Dried milk Products: Fish Meal; Meat, Tankage and Blood Meals
Dried milk Products:
1)Dried whole milk: CP=25.4%
2)Dried Skim milk: CP=33.4
3)Dried buttermilk: CP=31.7%
•Fed as milk replacer during early weaning
•Milk products are highly palatable
•Milk nutrients are highly digestible
•Casein is excellent quality protein
Fish Meal
1)Menhaden: CP=61.2, EE=9.6
2)Anchovy: CP=65.6, EE=4.1
3)Herring: CP=72, EE=8.5
4)Solubles: CP=31.5, EE=6.1
•May consist of whole fish or suttings
•EE is variable (+ or – oil extraction)
•Low in CF; high in B vitamins
•Excellent protein for starting growing swine; not usually fed to ruminants ($)
•Limit to <5% of protein for finishing swine (b/c fishy odor + flavor in pork)
Meat, Tankage and Blood Meals
• CP=60%, CF=<1, EE is variable
• Ca and P are high
• EE highly variable (+ or – fat extraction)
• Consists of unusable tissues) bone, blood, gut, tendon, connective tissue and fat)
• Prepared by steam cooking, drying and grinding
• Connective tissue reduces biological value
• Biological value: how well dietary protein matches the amino acid requirement of animal
•In >4.4% P, can be labeled as meat and bone meal
•Blood meal good rumen “bypass protein” but poor palatability