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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Which neurotransmitter seems to inhibit ACH release, therefore inhibiting persitalsis?
Enkephalin
Can stimulate secretion
Which neurotransmitter possibly does not have a major role in the ENS and may have a relaxing effect on the gut?
GABA
Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter
Which neurotransmitter is specially important in sphincters?
Nitric oxide
A cotransmitter at inhibitory ENS neuromuscular junctions?
Primary neeurotransmitter ant postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings?
NOREPI
A major transmitter in neuron-neuron excitatory junctions?
serotonin
Contransmitter in depression
Which neurotransmitter is a vasodilator probably via release of nitric oxide?
Substance P
Has an interrelationship with enkephalins
What is the rate limiting step in the synthesis of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the Adrenergic system?
The step catalyzed by tyrosine hydroxylase
What intermediary do both epinephrine and norepinephrine end up having as a result of adrenergic enzymatic activity?
3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid
What is the product of dopamine breakdown?
Homovanillic acid
What must be done to the dopamine receptor in psychotic patients?
The receptor must be blocked
What are muscarinic receptors a subtype of?
A subtype of cholinoreceptors
What are alpha/beta receptors a subtype of?
A subtype of adrenoceptors
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on the ciliary muscle of the eye?
relaxes
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on the ciliary muscle of the eye?
contracts
Which neurotransmitter may be a postganglionic sympathetic transmitter in renal blood vessels?
Dopamine
Can be used for patients trying to quit smoking
What is the effect of sympathetic activity in the SA node?
increases
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on heart contractility?
increases
What is the effect of parasympathetic activity on the SA node?
decelerates
What is the effect of parasympathetic activity on heart contractility?
decreases
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on the skin splachnic vessels?
contracts
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on skeletal muscle vessels?
relaxes
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on bronchiolar smooth muscle?
relaxes
What is the effect of parasympathetic activity on bronchiolar smooth muscle?
contracts
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on gastrointestinal smooth muscle wall?
relaxes
What is the effect of parasympathetic activity on gastrointestinal smooth muscle wall?
contracts
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on gastrointestinal sphincters?
contracts
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on gastrointestinal sphincters?
relaxes
How does post-synaptic potential activity affect system arousal?
It is this potential which determines if the system fires
What is glaucoma?
A group of disease of the optic nerve which involves loss of retinal ganglion cells.
How do cholinergic drugs affect glaucoma?
They prevent intraocular pressure from progression to the nerve damaging stages (glaucoma)
What effect does sypmpathetic activity have on the bladder wall? What receptor?
relaxes, B2
What effect does parasypmpathetic activity have on the bladder wall? What receptor?
contracts M3
What effect does sypmpathetic activity have on the bladder sphincter? What receptor?
Contracts, α1
What effect does parasypmpathetic activity have on the bladder sphincter? What receptor?
relaxes, M3
What does nicotinic activity mean?
It means a substance that will activate the same receptors such as nicotine.
In pharmacology what is an antagonist?
A drug that opposes the action of another drug
In pharmacology what is an agonist?
A chemical substance capable of activating a receptor to induce a full or partial response
What innervation system predominates in the intestine?
Acetylcholine
What innervation system predominates in digestion?
Acetylcholine
How do we effect the cholinergic system directly and indirectly?
directly: hit the receptors – indirectly: block enzyme acetylcholine esterase which inactivates acetylcholine.