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56 Cards in this Set

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Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter -------- which act on -------- receptors.
Ach, nicotinic.
Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter -------- which act on ------- receptors.
Ach, muscarinic.
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons to sweat glands release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
Ach, muscarinic.
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons to sweat glands release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
Ach, muscarinic.
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons to glands, cardiac and smooth muscles release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
Ach, nicotinic.
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons to glands, cardiac and smooth muscles release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
NE, alpha and beta
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons to renal vascular smooth muscle release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
dopamine, D1
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons to renal vascular smooth muscle release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
Dopamine, D1
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons to the adrenal medulla release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
Ach, nicotinic.
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons to the adrenal medulla synapse directly on ------- cells of the adrenal medulla.
Chromaffin.
Somatic neurons synapse directly on -------- muscle and release the neurotransmitter ------- which act on ------- receptors.
skeletal muscle, Ach, nicotinic.
Ach is synthesized from acetyl-CoA and choline by the enzyme ---------.
Choline acetyltransferase.
The transport of choline into the nerve terminal can be inhibited by --------.
Hemicholinium.
The release of transmitter from vesicles in the nerve ending require the entry of ------ into the neuron.
Calcium.
The action of Ach in the synapse is terminated by its metabolism to acetate and choline by the enzyme ---------.
Acetylcholinesterase.
In the noradrenergic nerve terminal, tyrosine is hydroxylated to -------, which is decarboxylated to --------, which is finally hydroxylated to NE.
DOPA, dopamine.
Dopamine is transported into vesicles for hydroxylation to NE. This transport can be blocked by the drug --------.
Reserpine.
The action of NE and DA is terminated by --------- and ----------.
Reuptake, diffusion (different than for Ach).
The --------- drugs promote catecholamine release.
Amphetamine.
The drugs --------- and ---------- inhibit the reuptake of NE.
Cocaine, TCA.
The release of NE from a sympathetic nerve ending is modulated by ---------, --------- and ---------.
NE, Ach, angiotensin II.
NE inhibits its own release at the noradrenergic nerve terminal through --------- receptors.
Alpha 2.
Angiotensin II --------- (inhibits / stimulates) the release of NE from the noradrenergic nerve terminal.
Stimulates.
Ach inhibits the release of NE from the noradrenergic nerve terminal by binding to --------- receptors.
M1.
Clinical application and action of Bethanechol.
Postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention. / Activates bowel and bladder smooth muscle.
Clinical application and action of Carbachol and Pilocarpine.
Glaucoma. / Activates ciliary muscle of eye (open angle), pupillary sphincter (narrow angle).
Clinical application / action of Neostigmine.
Postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular junction blockade (postoperative). / Increase endogenous Ach.
Clinical application / action of Pyridostigmine.
Myasthenia gravis. / Increase Ach; increase strength.
Clinical application / action of Edrophonium.
Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (extremely short acting). / Increase endogenous Ach.
Clinical application / action of Physostigmine.
Glaucoma (crosses blood-brain barrier) and atropine overdose. / Increase endogenous Ach.
Clinical application / action of Echothiophate.
Glaucoma. / Increase endogenous Ach.
Symptoms of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning.
Diarrhea, Urination, Miosis, Bronchospasm, Bradycardia, Excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, Lacrimation, Sweating, Salivation (also abdominal cramping). "DUMBBELSS".
Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning may be caused by ---------.
Parathion and other organophosphates.
The cholinesterase regenerator ------- can be used as an antidote for cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning.
Pralidoxime.
Mechanism of action of Pralidoxime.
Regenerates active cholinesterase, chemical antagonist, used to treat organophosphate exposure.
Clinical uses of the muscarinic antagonist Atropine.
Dilate pupils, decrease acid secretion in peptic ulcer disease, decrease urgency in mild cystitis, decrease GI motility, reduce airway secretions, and treat organophosphate poisoning. "Blocks SLUD: Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation."
Side effects of Atropine.
Increase body temp, rapid pulse, dry mouth, dry/flushed skin, disorientation, mydriasis with cycloplegia, and constipation. "Atropine parasympathetic block side effects: Blind as bat, Red as a beet, Mad as a hatter, Hot as a hare, Dry as a bone."
Hexamethonium (ganglionic blocker) blocks -------- receptors.
Nicotinic.
tropi are anti-muscarinic, mneumonic?
while vacationing in the tropics you lie on a beach and your muscles waste away!
benztropine is used to treat
Parkinson's disease
scopolamine is used to treat
motion sickness
name 2 antimuscarinic drugs that act on the CNS
benztropine, scopolamine
name a muscarinic used to treat motion sickness
scopolamine
name a muscarinic used to treat Parkinson's disease
benztropine
mechanism of action of benztropine
antimuscarinic
mechanism of action of scopolamine
antimuscarinic
name three antimuscarinics that act on eye
atropine, homatropine, tropicamide
the action of atropine is ______
produce mydriasis, cycloplegia
mechanism of atropine is
antimuscarinic
the action of homatropine is ______
produce mydriasis, cycloplegia
mechanism of homatropine is
antimuscarinic
the action of tropicamide is
produce mydriasis, cycloplegia
mechanism of tropicamide is
antimuscarinic
ipatropium is used to treat
asthma, COPD
mechanism of ipatropium is
antimuscarinic
name an antimuscarinic used to treat asthma and COPD
ipatropium