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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of anoxia
complete or partial disruption of oxygen supply to tissue
Most common cause of anoxia
cardiac arrest
Other causes of anoxia or hypoxic encephalopathy
-reduced arterial pressure secondary to lung disease
-reduced hemoglobin to carry oxygen secondary to anemia or blood loss
- biochem block of cerebral utillisation of oxygen secondary to cyanide poisoning
Mitigators of extent of hypoxic damage
-body temperature (hypothermia is protective)
Specific neuroanatomy damaged by anoxia
In order of effect
-hippocampus (loring)
-hippocampus/frontal cortex (lindsay & bone)
-parietal/occipital cortex
-basal ganglia/cerebellum
-brain stem
General guideline is grey more than white, and most vulnerable are watershed regions at end of vascular supply : hipposcampus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, occipital cortex, frontal regions
Progression of deficits over time intervals
visual disturbance
-loss of consciousness
-brain stem signs
-flexion or extension to pain/death
Damage to hippocampus in anoxia results in
anterograde amnesia
Visuspatial deficits secondary to anoxia include
central vision disturbances
visual agnosia
cortical blindness
Effects of oxygen deprivation on cognitive performance by partial pressure of arteria oxygen (PaO2)
- 75% of normal - complex task performance altered
- 65% normal - memory is impaired
- 50% of normal - judgment altered and unconsciousness may occur
- 30-40% of normal death results
Mechanism of neural damage in anoxia/hypoxia
1. Lactic acidosis
2. Calcium influx and intracellular accumulation of calcium due to ionic pump failure
3. Neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acide NT - glutamate
4. formation of oxygen-free radicals following reperfusion/reoxygenation of damaged neuronal membranes