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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
polymers
large molecule
monomer
nucleotides- small molecules
carbohydrates
function:energy
polysacharides(starch) are digested into monosaccharides(glucose)
protiens
digested into amino acids
helps build muscle, found in cell membrane
digestion
the process of converting complex organic moelcules/large nutrient molecules(polymer) into smaller ones(monomers) to pass through the cell membrane.
autotrophs
produce their organic molecules in the process of photosynthesis
heterotrophs
obtain their organic molecules by eating
intracellular digestion
digestion that takes place inside a cell
example: protazoans-use food vacules and lysosomes to digest the food
extracellular digestion
digestion that takes place outside the cells
example: hydra feed by using their tentacles
one way traffic
a complete mouth-anus digestive track is present in many animals- 2 openings
two way traffic
one opening that serves as both the mouth and anus
mechanical digestion
chewing, churning, or grinding. physical process that brakes food into smaller pieces, but DOES NOT change them chemically
occurs in the mouth and stomach
chemical digestion
using chemicals (digestive enzymes) to convert large chemical nutrients to smaller subunits
occurs in salvary glands, stomach, and small intestine
enzymes-
salivary amulase-salvary glands
pepsin-stomach
trypsin-small intestine
pancreatic anylase-small intestine
lipase-small intestine
Mastication
waht happens to food to increase the surface area so it can easily be broken down by enzymes
salivary glands
secrete saliva
saliva
water and salivary anylase
peristalisis
peristaltis waves of esphogus muscles move food along the digestive tract timulating the opening of the cardiac sphincter
stomach
3 main functions:mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, stores food.
gastric juice
secreted which contains HCL, mucus, and pepsin which will digest proteins
chyme
leaves the stomach thru the pyloric spincter
liver
produces bile
bile
dissoves droplets of fats in fatty foods
gall bladder
stores the bile
pancreas
adds enzymes to digest all 3 groups of organic molecules
villi + microvilli
the lining of the small intestine is folded to increase the surface area to absorb the max amount of nutrients
small intestine
chyme enters teh duodenum- chemical digestion and absorbtion of food
large intestine(colon)
water is absorbed as solid feceds are formed until they exit through the rectum
rectum/anus/feces
the ende of the large intestine-the rectum-store feces
feces then go through the anus and out the body
digestive disorders
lactose intolerance, diabetes, heart burn, ulcers, IBS