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70 Cards in this Set

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most basic phylum on evolutionary tree
most basic phylum on evolutionary tree, mainly sponges
King Phillip Chews on Fresh Green Stems
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Porifera - Digestion
suspension feeders, collect food particles from water through filtering, flagellated choanocytes line inside of water chambers and trap food
Porifera - Circulation
pores move water in and out of sponge to extract nutrients
Porifera - Excretion
gives off waste directly back into water
Porifera - Nervous
no nerves or muscles, individual cells can sense and react to changes in the environment
Porifera - Respitory
water drawn in through spores into spongocoel and flows out through osculum, take oxygen from water
Porifera - Reproduction
mostly hermaphrodites, can massively regenerate, asexual reproduction by budding, moon cycles, 1st external reproduction
2nd most primative on evolutionary tree, hydras, jellies, sea anemones, coral animals
Cnidaria - Digestion
central digestive compartment (gastrovascular cavity), carnivores, tenticles arned with cnidocytes, nematocysts are stinging capsules
Cnidaria - Circulation
through cells
Cnidaria - Excretion
through cells, nitrogen waste in form of ammonia diffuses directly into surrounding water
Cnidaria - Nervous
cells of epidermis and gastrodermus have microfilaments, no muscle, no brain, nerve nets, simple sensory receptors dispersed in body, neurotoxins
Cnidaria - Respitory
diffusion of oxygen through water
Cnidaria - 3 classes
Hydrozoa(hydras), Scyphozoa(jellies), Anthozoa(sea anemones, corals)
Cnidaria - 2 forms
polyps - cylindrical forms that adhere and extend tenticles (hydra, sea anemones) and medusa - flattened mouthdown polyp (jellies)
follow cnidarians on evolutionary tree, flatworms
Platyhelminthes - Digestion
gastrovascular cavity with one opening, carnivores
Platyhelminthes - Circulation
through cells
Platyhelminthes - Circulation
through cells
Platyhelminthes - Digestion
gastrovascular cavity with one opening, carnivores
Platyhelminthes - Circulation
take in water, no true system
Platyhelminthes - Excretion
one hole digestive tract, flame cells to regulate water damage and get rid of waste, will eventually evolve into kidneys
Platyhelminthes - Nervous
sensory organs (eyes, smell), can learn, more complicated nervenet, simple, nerve cords hooked to ganglion
Platylhelminthes - Respiratory
lack organs for gas exchange, oxygen through skin
Platylhelminthes - 4 classes
Turbellaria(free living flatworms), Monogenea(monogeneans), Trematoda(flukes), and Cestoida(tapeworms)
Platyhelminthes - Reproduction
regeneration, sexual reproduction, hermaphrodites
Platyhelminthes - Evolutionary
cuticle, aceolomates, bilateral symmetry, 3 germ layers, tripoblastic
follow platyhelminthes on evolutionary tree, ascaris(long cream colored worms, reproduce like crazy and grow in cysts with little worms in them), pinworm(common in small children from dirt, easily cured), hookworm(lives off blood), filaria(elephantitis), trichinosis(from uncooked pork), roundworms
Nemotoda - Digestion
decompose organic matter, complete digestive tract
Nemotoda - Circulation
none, nutrients transported through fluid in pseudocoelum, move stuff inside of it
Nemotoda - Excretion
complete 2 hole digestive tract
Nemotoda - Nervous
longitudinal muscles
Nemotoda - Respitory
take gas from surroundings
Nemotoda - Evolutionary
only sexual reproduction, cuticle, psuedocoelum(fake body cavity)
first protostome, segmented worms(allows specialization into tissues and organs), leeches, earthworms, tubeworms
Nemotoda - Evolutionary
only sexual reproduction, cuticle, psuedocoelum(fake body cavity)
first prostomes, after nematoda on evolutionary tree, segmented worms(allows specialization into tissues and organs), leeches, earthworms, tubeworms
Annelida - Digestion
specialized digestive tract with a pharynx, estophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestines
Annelida - Circulation
blood vessels, first heart, closed system
Annelida - Excretion
nephridia(filtering system of kidneys)
Annelida - Nervous
nerve cords penetrate septa and run length of worm, ganglia, senses
Annelida - Respitory
through skin, moist cuticle needed to take in oxygen
Annelida - Evolutionary
hermaphrodites, cross fertilize, coelomates - true body cavity lined with peritoneum, much more mobile w/segmentation
protostome, after annelida on evolutionary octupuses
Mollusca - Digestion
many use radula to scrape up food, suspention feeders, longer digestive tract
Mollusca - Circulation
three chamber heart, more sophisticated system
Mollusca - Excretion
nephridia to remove NH2 waste, reabsorb water and salt for balance
Mollusca - Nervous
soft bodies, cephalopods have brains, complex nervous systems, ganglion
Mollusca - Respitory
gills to extract oxygen, gastropods use lining of mantle cavity as lung
Mollusca - 4 classes
Polyplacophora(chitons), Gastropoda(snails and slugs), Bivalvia(clams and oysters), Cephalopoda(squids and octupuses)
Mollusca - Evolutionary
mostly marine, have muscular foot, visceral mass, and mantle, no asexual reproduction, coelumates, body cavity from mesoderm, gastropoda undergo torsion --> anus ends up above head
protostomes, after mollusca on evolutionary tree, spiders, insects, crustaceans, shrimp, barnicles
Arthropoda - Digestion
full specialized digestive tract
Arthropoda - Circulation
open, hemolymph fluid propelled by heart through short arteries into sinuses surrounding tissues and organs, reenters heart through pores
Arthropoda - Excretion
Arthropoda - Nervous
sensory organs, extensive cephalization, ganglion, opposing muscles(very mobile and quick)
Arthropoda - Respitory
aquatic have gills with feathery extensions, internal surfaces specialized for gas exchange - tracheal systems with branched air ducts into cuticle
Arthropoda - Evolutionary
segmented coelomates, exoskeletons with molting, jointed appendages, flexibility, cuticle of chitin that allows to retain water and live on land, statocyst for balance(eventually will become the semi-circular canal)
deuterostome, after arthropoda on evolutionary tree, seastars, urchins, and cucumbers
Echinodermata - Digestion
tube feet grip pray, turn stomach inside out through mouth, digest food outside of body
Echinodermata - Circulation
through water, primative
Echinodermata - Excretion
from cells into water, blastopore anus
Echinodermata - Nervous
primative nerve nets
Echinodermata - Respitory
through water
Echinodermata - Evolutionary
spiny skinned, external sexual reproduction, radial symmetry, larve have bilateral symmetry, can regenerate
rest of invertebrates and vertebrates, highest on evolutionary tree
cleavage - spiral and determinate
fate of gastropore - mouth
cleavage - radial and indeterminate
fate of gastropore - anus