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177 Cards in this Set

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cow-calf operation
a management unit that maintains a breeding herd and produces weaned calves
feeder
an animal that needs further feeding prior to slaughter
stocker
weaned cattle that are fed high-roughage diets before going into the feedlot
grade or commercial
livestock not registered with registry association
purebred
animals that may have been "upbred" by crossbreeding full bloods with other breeds
full blood
animals that have no crossbred ancestors
registered
recorded in the herdbook of a breed
bred
female that has been mated
breed
animals of common origin with characteristics that distinguish them from other groups within the same species
band
a relatively large group of horses or range sheep
flock
a group of sheep or poultry
herd
a group of beef, dairy, or swine
buck
a male sheep or goat
bull
a bovine male
bullock
a young bull
calve
bovine parturition
dam
female parent
farrow
porcine parturition
heifer
young female bovine that hasn't produced her first calf
heiferette
a heifer that has calved but not nursed and is sent to the feedlot
hinny
stallion x jennet
jack
male donkey
jennet
female donkey
mule
jack x mare
litter
the young produced by multiparous females
parturition
process of giving birth
ram
mature male sheep
shoat
young pig of either sex
shrink
loss of weight
sire
male parent
castrate
to remove the testicles
spay
to remove the ovaries
stag
animal that has been castrated after sexual maturity
stud
-synonymous with stallion
-place where males are kept
beef
meat from cattle other than calves
boxed beef
primal and subprimal cuts of beef that are put in boxes for shipping from packing plant to retailers
pork
meat from swine
veal
meat from young cattle
weaning
separating young animals from their dams so that the offspring can no longer suckle
weanling
an animal of weaning age
yearling
animals that are approximately 1 year old
forb
weedy or broadleaf plants that serve as pasture for animals
browse
woody or brushy plants
brockle-faced
white-faced with other colors splotched on the face and head
colostrum
the first milk given by a female after delivery of her young
creep
an enclosure in which only young can enter to feed
cwt
an abbreviation for hundred weight
per capita
per person
hide
skin from animals
pelt
the natural, whole-skin covering
skins
hides from smaller animals
calving interval
the amount of time between the birth of a calf and the birth of a subsequent calf from the same cow
contemporaries
group of animals of the same sex and breed, or similar breeding, that have been raised under similar environmental conditions
cull
to eliminate one or more animals from the breeding herd or flock
environment
the sum total of all external conditions that affect the well-being and performance of an animal
full sibs
animals with the same sire and dam
half sibs
animals having one common parent
longevity
lifespan of an animal
nicking
the way in which certain lines, strains, or breed perform when mated together
parity
number of times a female has had offspring
creep
an enclosure in which only young can enter to feed
cwt
an abbreviation for hundred weight
per capita
per person
hide
skin from animals
pelt
the natural, whole-skin covering
skins
hides from smaller animals
calving interval
the amount of time between the birth of a calf and the birth of a subsequent calf from the same cow
contemporaries
group of animals of the same sex and breed, or similar breeding, that have been raised under similar environmental conditions
cull
to eliminate one or more animals from the breeding herd or flock
environment
the sum total of all external conditions that affect the well-being and performance of an animal
full sibs
animals with the same sire and dam
half sibs
animals having one common parent
longevity
lifespan of an animal
nicking
the way in which certain lines, strains, or breed perform when mated together
parity
number of times a female has had offspring
seed stock
breeding animals
selection
differentially reproducing what one wants in a herd or flock
A.I.
the introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract by a technique other than natural service
amnion
fluid-filled membrane located next to the fetus
anestrous
period of time when female is not in estrus
artificial vagina
device used to collect semen from a male when he mounts in a normal manner to copulate
caruncle
the "buttons" on the ruminant uterus where the cotyledons on the fetal membranes attach
chorion
the outermost layer of fetal membranes
conception
fertilization of the ovum
cotyledon
an area of the placenta that interfaces with the uterine lining to allow nutrients and wastes to pass from the mother to the developing young
cycling
infers that nonpregnant females have active estrous cycles
dystocia
difficult birth
fertility
the capacity to initiate, sustain, and support reproduction
flushing
placing females on a gaining level of nutrition before breeding to stimulate greater ovulation rates
freemartin
female born twin to a bull
gestation
the time from breeding or conception of a female until she gives birth to her young
gonad
the testis of the male and the ovary of the female
multiparous
having had two or more pregnancies resulting in viable fetuses
postpartum
after birth
postpartum interval
length of time from parturition until the dam is again pregnant
puberty
age at which the reproductive organs become functionally operative
service
to breed or mate
barren
not capable of producing offspring
dry
refers to a nonlactating female
open
refers to a nonpregnant female
wet
a milking female
winking
indication of estrus in the mare where the vulva opens and closes
growth
the increase in protein over its loss in the animal body
finish
the degree of fatness of an animal
adipose
fat cells or fat tissue
fat
adipose tissue
lipid
used interchangeably with "fat"
probe
device used to measure backfat thickness in pigs and cattle
break joint
denotes the point on a lamb carcass where the foot and pastern are removed at the cartilaginous junction of the front leg
spool joint
joint where the foot and pastern are removed from the front leg
lamb
young male or female sheep
mutton
meat from a sheep that is over a year old
monogastric
having only one stomach or one compartment in the stomach
nonruminant
monogastric animal
ruminant
mammal whose stomach has 4 parts
concentrate
feed used with another to improve the nutrive value of the whole
roughage
feed that is high in fiber but low in digestible nutrients and energy
hay
harvested forage
silage
forage, corn fodder, or sorghum preserved by fermentation
soilage
green forage that is cut and brought to animals as food
bolus
regurgitated food
cud
bolus of feed that is for further chewing
diet
feed ingredients or mixture of ingredients which are consumed by animals
ration
the amount of total feed fed to an animal over a 24-hour period
digestibility
food that is absorbable into the body
digestion
the reduction in particle size of feed so that the feed become soluble
feed efficiency
pound of feed/pound of gain
on full feed
refers to animals that are receiving all the food they can consume
anterior
situated in front
dorsal
situated on the back of an animal
distal
position that is distant from the point of attachment of an organ
posterior
toward the rear end of an animal
proximal
position that is closest to the point of attachment of a limb or bone
ventral
situated on the abdominal plane of the body
morbidity
measurement of illness
mortality
measurement of death
buck-kneed
condition in which the knee is set too far forward in relation to the leg
calf-kneed
condition in which the knees bend backward
cow-hocked
hocks are close together but the feet stand apart
interfering
striking the supporting leg with the foot of the striding leg
paddling
outward swinging of the front feet of a horse that toes in
pigeon-toed
toes of front feet turn in
sickle-hocked
hind feet are too far forward and too far underneath the animal
soundness
free from injury, damage, defect, or disease
splay-footed
toes of front feet turn out
toeing in
same as pigeon-toed
toeing out
same as splay-footed
unsoundness
any defect or injury that interferes with the usefullness of an animal
winging
an exaggerated outward deviation in the fore foot and lower leg at flexion
broken-mouth
some teeth are missing or broken
full-mouth
animal that has all permanent teeth fully exposed
mouthed
examined an animal's teeth
overshot (parrot-mouth)
upper jaw is longer than lower jaw
undershot (monkey-mouth)
lower jaw is longer than upper jaw
blemish
any defect or injury that mars the appearance of, but not the usefullness of, an animal
libido
sex drive or the desire to mate on the part of the male
scours
diarrhea
hand mating
bringing a female to a male for service and removing the female from the male's location afterward
cod
scrotal area of steer remaining after castration
dehorn
to remove the horns from an animal
polled
naturally or genetically hornless
scurs
small growths of hornlike tissue attached to the skin of polled or dehorned animals
wattle
method of identification in cattle where strips of skin are usually cut on the nose, jaw, throat, or brisket
dock
to cut off the tail
lambing jug
a small pen for a ewe that is lambing
fleece
the wool shorn at one time from all parts of a sheep
grease wool
wool as it comes from the sheep prior to cleaning
hank
measurement of fineness of wool
shearing
process of removing the fleece from a sheep
spinning count
the number of hanks of yarn that can be spun from a pound of clean wool
crutching
clipping wool from the dock, udder, and vulva regions of the ewe prior to breeding and lambing
tags
wool covered with manure
conformation
the physical form of an animal
type
the physical attributes that contribute to the value of an animal for a specific purpose
milk fat
the fat in milk
udder
the encased group of mammary glands of an animal
Roman nose
horse nose that doesn't have a prominent bridge