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34 Cards in this Set

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Adaptation
Long term changes in animals in response to their environment that are genetically based.
Acclimatization
Adaptation of an animal to environmental factors over a period of days or weeks (i.e. increase red blood cells in high altitude)
Conduction
Exchange of heat from warm to cold between objects that are touching
Convection
Flow of heat from warm to cold through air or water.
Critical Temperature
The temperature below (lower critical temperature) which the animal must make physiological adjustments to maintain its body temperature. Upper critical temperature is that temperature at which the animal makes adjustments to try and cool its body.
Effective Temperature
The total heating or cooling power of the environment. Ambient temperature is affected is affected by wind, humidity, and solar radiation.
Evaporation
Loss of heat through vaporization of moisture from the respiratory tract and skin.
Homeotherm
Animals that maintain a relatively constant body temperature regardless of external temperatures.
Horse
Normal Body Temperature
100 F
Cattle
Normal Body Temperature
101.5 F
Sheep
Normal Body Temperature
102 F
Goats
Normal Body Temperature
102 F
Swine
Normal Body Temperature
102.5 F
Chickens
Normal Body Temperature
107 F
Radiation
The exchange of heat between two objects that are not touching. Can result in loss or gain of heat.
Thermoneutral ZONE
Range of temperatures where heat loss and heat production are about the same. Animal is in comfort zone---no physiological response to temperature.
Factors Affecting Critical Temperature
1. Haircoat
2. Subcutaneous fat
3. Nutritional level
4. Is the animal wet or dry
Hormonal Response to Temperature Stress--(Thyroxine)
Produced by the thyroid gland, increases during cold stress and decreases during heat stress.
Hormonal Response to Temperature Stress--(Corticoids)
Produced by the adrenal gland, increased during cold stress, decreased during heat stress.
Summer months conducive/limiting to livestock production. Why? What's an exception.
Limiting. Because most of our farm animals are not well adapted to dissipating heat. A notable exception is Brahman.
Methods of Reducing Stress during hot periods!
1. Shade
2. Evaporative Cooling
3. Refrigeration
Describe shade as a method of reducing stress during hot periods.
Cheapest and simplest method of reducing heat stress due to solar radiation.

Properly designed shades will reduce radiant heat gain by up to 50%.
What defines "proper shade"?
1. 10-12' high
2. Atop a hill if possible
3. Top is white or shinny (reflective
4. Underside is dull and dark
Describe evaporative cooling as a method of reducing stress during hot periods.
One of the most effective ways to control heat stress, ESPECIALLY IN SWINE

Sprinklers, foggers, and wallows are most effective. Evaporative coolers are used in many poultry houses.
Other examples of evaporative cooling.
Cooling Pads and Tunnel Ventilation.
Describe refrigeration as a method of reducing stress during hot periods.
Refrigerated air conditioning is costly.

Some are pulling air through underground ducts into a barn which may cool the air down into the mid 60s.

Zone Cooling. . .
According to a Kansas State study, ADG increase from. . .
Control to Fogged to Sprinkled.
According to a Kansas State study, Daily Intake increase from. . .
Control to Fogged to Sprinkled.
According to a Kansas State study, Feed/Gain increase from. . .
Sprinkled to Control to Fogged.
What is Zone cooling?
Part of the Refrigeration method. AKA blowing hair onto the head. It has been effective in SOWS in farrowing houses who have shown increased milk production.
Talk about Feed and Water Needs during Stress.
1. Water intake during heavy stress increases 50-100%

2. Cali research project shows that ADG in feedlot cattle increases by .5 lbs per day by cooling water from 90 to 65 F.
With any species, high fiber diets contribute to what?
HEAT STRESS
What is depressed during heat stress?
Feed intake.
How can one combat the depression of feed intake during heat stress?
Poultry producers "Top dress" rations with B VITAMINS to increase appetite, trace minerals, and high energy feeds like animal fat to keep production levels high.