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60 Cards in this Set

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What are the two major reasons why creatures must feed continually throughout their lives?
Feeding refers to means of obtaining and ingesting food. Creatures bodies age and become damaged throughout an animal’s life, and ultimately they are discarded and replaced and these necessary chemical blocks are discarded with them
Of the four major elements (kinds of atoms) important to life (what are they?),
Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen, of this the scarcest is Nitrogen most nitrogen are not available for usage to humans and most animals rely on bacteria to fixate it
3. What distinguishes essential from non-essential amino acids? Are “essential amino acids” a fixed category across all organisms?
We classify the amino acids in terms of those the body (non-essential) can manufacture and those that come from the diet (essential). It is not fixed in some organisms because if giving the right condition sometimes they can use some other constituents to produce some essential amino acids internally
What is the kidney main function
regulatates water loss, blood volume, blood solute concentration, and blood pH
the unit of function is the nephron
Ultrafiltration/ultrafiltrate
fluid entering into a kidney tubule when a difference in hydrostation pressure is higher outside the tubule than inside the tubule lumen, ultrafiltrate consist of only water and subsets of solutes that are able to stream through
Main function of ADH
can cause the production of hyperosmotic urine because collecting ducts are surrounded by fluid hyperosmotic to the fluid in duct ADH in principal controls the excretion of water without it collecting ducts wall are imperable to water
Left ventricle
supplys most of the body with freshly oxygenated blood
right ventricle
brings deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Describe the morphology of the artery
tends to be thick and elastic because blood is usually under greater pressure this elastic contraction helps pumps blood
venule
connected capallary with vein and it is the site of white blood cell stick and then leave the tissure at site of infection
Aorta
has a higher pressure because must supply blood to the rest of the body while pulmonary carries blood from heart to lungs
Systole
when heart is contracting (stroke volume) and diastole is when the heart is in relaxation
Uric acid
small water loss metabolicaaly expensive
urea
intermediate water loss metabollically mid priced
ammonia
requires alot of water to get rid of very toxic
why are animals ureotelic
Ammonia is a highly toxic compound. So it shouldn't be stored in an organism's body for a long time. The problem is that ammonia can only be eliminated in a solution (because it is higly soluble).

Aquatic animals are sorrounded by water, so water conservation is not a problem for them. In this manner, they are continously eliminating ammonia, in some cases even through their skins. On the other hand, terrestrial animals have to conserve water. They cannot waste it, so ammonia (in a solution) can't be eliminated continously . Since ammonia is highly toxic, it has to be converted to a less toxic form, like urea or uric acid. Both of them can be eliminated when the organism has enough water to spend
what happens to flow if r is doubled
If radius doubled, the blood flow increase by a factor of 16 If the length of the tube doubles the blood flow is decrease by a factor of 2
-If the viscosity increases the blood flow will decrease
gas exchange
: unlike animals that are very small, air diffuses from outside to the inside, however, for us (humans) this is imposible because of our large size. So to get the oxygen to the tissue, we increase surface area to volume ratio
-Breathing in the air is different in breathing in the water because
Water has less oxygen concentration in the water than it is in the air
-Water has higher viscosity (resistance of flow) that make it hard to flow water through the gills so it makes it makes it energetically costly than breathing done in the air
-Fish use gills to extract oxygen from water, fish use counter current exchange to get oxygen that is more efficient than current exchange
what structures make up the gills
are composed of a gill arch (which gives the gill rigid support), gill filaments (always paired), and secondary lamellae, (where gas exchange takes place).
- Oxygen gradient between the environment and the body tissue of the fish decrease
from outside environment through the respiratory surface through arterial blood through capillary blood through the tissue and in the other hand carbon dioxide increasing
Breathing by reptiles
evolved to have cartilage reinforced tube lungs have a great deal of surface area which allows them to take up most oxygen and rid of almost call carbon dioxide
Breathing in birds
the lungs of birds are compact rigid structures consist of numerous tubes running parallel to one another parabronchi and parabronchi is the principle site at which gas exchange takes place lungs ventalited by bellows action generation by expansion of air sacs
factors influencing hemoglobin-oxygen affinity
Hemoglobin oxygen affinity is reduced by…
– Decrease in pH (i.e. more acidic).
– Increase in CO2
• Even if pH is constant
– Elevated temperature will decrease the affinity of oxygen if there is an increase in metabolic energy
How do plants trap radiant energy?
They contain pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) that absorb different wavelengths of light
• They have leaf structures that maximize light absorption
Where in the leaf does photosynthesis take place?
In parts of the plant, chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll
Chloroplast ( inner membrane, outer membrane
Chloroplasts are membrane-bound structures located in cells in the mesophyll (middle section) of a leaf.
Suspended in fluid within the chloroplast, (stroma) are flat disc-like sacs (thylakoids), arranged in stacks (grana).
Chloroplasts are membrane-bound structures Chlorophyll is found in thylakoid membranes. It is a photopigment, absorbing light and then passing the energy along…
There is a theory that these where individual cells on they own as some bacteria but then formed symbiotic relations with a protist
Plants use visible wavelengths
• These wavelengths are the most abundant on Earth
• Longer wavelengths (e.g. infrared) would not provide sufficient energy to excite biological molecules
• Shorter wavelengths (e.g. ultraviolet), having too much energy, could destroy molecules
Chlorophylls (a&b) and carotenoids
The Light-Dependent Reaction
– a global view….
1 photosystem 2
2 photosystem 1
Trapping light: the antenna complex
The energy is passed from one chlorophyll to another and Only chlorophyll in the reaction center can use energy in photo- chemical reactions.
All photopigments light and direct this to the reaction center.
These act like an antenna.
1. Antenna complex in photosystem II absorbs photons and passes energy to reaction center
(RC)
2. Electrons in RC gain energy, ejected into photosystem II (PII) electron transport system light helps split that water
3. Electrons passed from one carrier molecule to thenext, gradually losing energy. Energy used to pump H+ into thylakoid
4. H+ diffusion out of thylakoid drives ATP synthesis (chemiosmosis)
The Light-Dependent Reaction
5. Antenna complex in photosystem I absorbs photons
and passes energy to reaction center (RC)
6. Electrons in RC gain energy, ejected into photosystem I (PI) electron transport system
7. Electrons passed from one carrier molecule to the next, eventually accepted by NADP+ to create NADPH.
8. H20 is split by PII RC, yielding H+, O2, and 2 e-, replace lost e- in PII RC
‒ Also, PI RC replenishes e- from PII
The Light-dependent reaction
– a global view….
O2 diffuses out of thylakoid, chloroplast, mesophyll cell, plant!!! Also, used in cellular respiration in plant
Light-independent (“Dark”) reaction:
Calvin-Benson cycle
• Carbon fixation occurs in stoma of chloroplast.
• Requires ATP, NADPH and CO2 • CO2 enters through stomata (in underside of leaf).
• End products:
• Glucose
• leads to formation of carbohydrates
• ADP, Pi and NADP+
How does the plant get the CO2 it needs
underside of leaf.
• Gas exchange limited to stomata.
• Stomata open/close in response to water, temp & light.
• When hot, stomata close.
• Ironically, sunlight greatest when stomata close limiting rates, it is hotter when there is the most light so in one since that’s when you want photosynthesis to happen but water will leak out!
Rubisco & carbon fixation
• CO2 reacts with 5-C compound – 6 ribulose biphosphate
• Forms unstable phosphoglycerate (PGA, a 3-C molecule)
• RuBP reaction catalysed by Rubisco (RuBP carboxylase) probly the most important protein because it acts also as an enzyme and helps catalyze reactions
Carbon fixation – Calvin-Benson cycle
• PGA incorporates the fixed C from CO2.
• Using the energy stored in ATP and NADPH, PGA is converted into glyceraldehyde –3
phosphate (G3P)
How does the plant get the water it needs
• From soil via roots.
• Root pressure and transpiration (water molecules leave stomata pulls it with gravity)
• If stomata close, less water pulled up to leaves
Photorespiration
Rubisco enzyme fixes O2 as well as CO2 (carboxylation)
• Concentration in atmosphere: O2 = 20%, CO2 = 0.035
• Fortunately, rubisco has a higher affinity (3000x) for CO2 than O2 it is a lot of oxygen around so there is a competition it is a general problem wasting rubisco on this photorespiration then on photosynthesis
• If oxygen binds to RuBP, G3P is created at reduced rate and higher metabolic cost. CO2 is also created.
• The Calvin-Benson cycle requires a continuous supply of CO2 in cells where photosynthesis is occurring. If CO2 drops below critical level photorespiration is more likely to occur
• Need to keep stomata open; otherwise CO2 levels low and O2 levels high
C4
Fast growing plants in warm, dry areas use C4 mechanisms. They fix CO2 in mesophyll and transfer to bundle sheath for Calvin cycle the mesophyll are more to the outside of the plant cell and the bundle sheath more to the interior of the plant 4 photosynthesis Mechanism of C4 photosynthesis
• PEP carboxylase has much higher affinity for CO2, relative to O2, than Rubisco
• Ultimately, malate (a 4-C molecule) is formed in mesophyll cell, which then enters bundle sheath cell
C4 photosynthesis -- pros and cons
• Because PEP carboxylase rapidly binds to CO2, stomata open only a short time.
Photosynthesis occurs even when stomata closed.
• Plants tolerate high light intensity, heat and less water availability.
• Adaptation of dry environment species
– Quick growing grasses, sugar canes, corn
• This requires a lot more energy C4 processes require extra ATP, NADPH,
• CO2 fixed at similar times but in different location to C3
– Thus, restricted to warm/dry regions.
CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) photosynthesis
Fast-growing plants (e.g. succulents, cacti) in hot dry areas may use CAM mechanisms. They fix CO2 at night and store it in vacuoles until daytime
CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism)
• Stomata only open at night(less evaporation), so you are isolating it not in terms of space
• CAM plants use PEP carboxylase to fix CO2 at night, malate is formed which is stored in vacuoles as malic acid for use during the day building up a higher concentration of CO2
• During the day, CO2 is reformed, enters Calvin-Benson cycle
Comparing C4 and CAM
CO2 fixed at different time but in same location as C3
What role of oxygen play besides being the final electron acceptor
Besides accepting electrons ultimately resulting in oxidative phosphorylation oxygen plays a role in the initiation of all the major biochemical reactions, NAD, and FAD are only available in limiting quantities so eventually Kreb cycle will stop unless have some other mechanism of recycling protons and electrons
oxidative phospholaration
OxPhos works by using the energy of electrons from NADH to drive the pumping of protons from one side of the mitochondrial membrane (crista) to the other.
What is the fate of lactic acid
. Lactic acid can sometimes be converted back to pyruvic acid but that requires oxygen, can also be broken down to ethanol we see in some fish, as well as keep it and have mechanism of buffering its affect
One might think that taking supplements of creatine might improve the body’s energy producing ability why?
because it can be used as addition phosphate which can be used as a source of ATP, this is brought to the muscles tissues that can change the osmotic pressure and muscle cells will retain more water.
3. What distinguishes essential from non-essential amino acids? Are “essential amino acids” a fixed category across all organisms?
We classify the amino acids in terms of those the body (non-essential) can manufacture and those that come from the diet (essential). It is not fixed in some organisms because if giving the right condition sometimes they can use some other constituents to produce some essential amino acids internally
4. What are the reasons we need to have vitamins and minerals in our diet? How are they important biochemically? Can their availability actually help determine animal behavior?
Vitamins and minerals are required for growth maintenance and sustenance of life. They are only need in a small quantity in a person diet but many and most are used as co enzymes. There availability have an inability to be used in the form in which they are absorbed so they must be converted or modified in some kind of active form so that can influence an animal behavior and vitamin deficiency can be type severe
7. What is the role that fermentation plays in digestion? Name some different ways by which fermentation is carried out
An ATP-generating process in which organic compounds act as both donors and acceptors of electrons. Fermentation refers to the several sorts of enzymes catalyzed reactions without the presence of oxygen. Carried out often by fermenting microbes bacteria, protists, yeasts and fungi ex. pyruvate into lactic acid
8. What distinguishes how digestion is carried out in bivalve mollusks with how it is carried out in vertebrates and arthropods?
Bivalve mollusks strongly depend on ciliary actions rather than muscle contraction to move more food through digestive tract and also allows them to sort particles with accordance to size, and absorption precedes digestion arthropods differ from vertebrates mainly due to the cuticle of the anterior stomach chamber
What are the three different kinds of body spaces in which digestion is carried out in ALL animals?
Intraluminal- the lumen of the body cavity, such as in the stomach, or midgut
Membrane- located in apical membranes of the epithelial cells and catalytic sites are located and exposed to the lumen
Intracellular- positioned inside the cells where particles must be taken into the cell
Compare and contrast how absorption occurs for hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules
Absorption of Hydrophilic molecules- cannot pass through simple diffusion example monosaccharides, amino acids and soluble vitamins therefore transporter proteins are needed notably in midgut vertebrates
Absorption of hydrophobic molecules these molecules such as fatty acids and monoacyglycerols is a bit different because they can dissolve into the lipid rich interior of the membrane readily by simple diffusion lipid digestion in the midgut lumen as fatty acids and monoacylglycerols are produced by lipid digestion and are solubilized by combining with bile salts to produce micelles which aids the absorption of molecules
omega 3 and omega 6
fatty acids that are essential because many types of animals lack the enzymes to create the double bonds on those carbons so must be synthesized and obtained from outside sources
retinol
vitamin a dependent on plant and algae to make this structure vitamin a structure is incorporated into rhodophins that make up the rods of the eye
fats
mainly composed of triglycerides 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids highest caloric content best way to store energy 10 times more dense than glycogen
sessile organisms in fat energy storage
dont have to worry about weight so may store carbohydrate which is stored with a lot of water
what is the only macromolecule that can be broken down anaerobically
carbohydrates
What is this photo representing..Explain
Oxidative phosphorylation is conceptually simple and mechanistically complex. Indeed, the unraveling of the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation has been one of the most challenging problems of biochemistry. The flow of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 through protein complexes located in the mitochondrial inner membrane leads to the pumping of protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. The resulting uneven distribution of protons generates a pH gradient and a transmembrane electrical potential that creates a proton-motive force. ATP is synthesized when protons flow back to the mitochondrial matrix through an enzyme complex. Thus, the oxidation of fuels and the phosphorylation of ADP are coupled by a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
the definition of The heart
muscular structure that contracts in a rhythmic pattern to pump blood. Hearts have a variety of forms
Mollusks and vertebrates have what type of heart
chambered hearts
Arthropods have what type of heart
tubular hearts
Insect’s use ____________ hearts to boost or supplement the main heart's actions.
accessory
The veterbrae fish has what type of heart
has two chambers. An auricle is the chamber of the heart where blood is received from the body. A ventricle pumps the blood it gets through a valve from the auricle out to the gills through an artery
Amphibians have what type of heart
three-chambered heart: two atria emptying into a single common ventricle. Some species have a partial separation of the ventricle to reduce the mixing of oxygenated (coming back from the lungs) and deoxygenated blood (coming in from the body). Two sided or two chambered hearts permit pumping at higher pressures and the addition of the pulmonary loop permits blood to go to the lungs at lower pressure yet still go to the systemic loop at higher pressures.
How is cytosolic NADH reoxidized under aerobic conditions
Recall that the glycolytic pathway generates NADH in the cytosol in the oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and NAD+ must be regenerated for glycolysis to continue NADH cannot simply pass into mitochondria for oxidation by the respiratory chain, because the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. The solution is that electrons from NADH, rather than NADH itself, are carried across the mitochondrial membrane. One of several means of introducing electrons from NADH into the electron transport chain is the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle (Figure 18.37).
Where in mitochondria do oxidative phosphorylation, and citric acid cycle take place
mitochondria have two membrane systems: an outer membrane and an extensive, highly folded inner membrane. The inner membrane is folded into a series of internal ridges called cristae. Hence, there are two compartments in mitochondria: (1) the intermembrane space between the outer and the inner membranes and (2) the matrix, which is bounded by the inner membrane (Figure 18.3). Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane, in contrast with most of the reactions of the citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation, which take place in the matrix.
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which
which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2to O2by a series of electron carriers. This process, which takes place in mitochondria, is the major source of ATP in aerobic organisms (Figure 18.1). For example, oxidative phosphorylation generates 26 of the 30 molecules of ATP that are formed when glucose is completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O.