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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hemolymph
The blood of invertebrates with open circulatory systems
Microcirculation
Capillary systems
Ultra filtration
The process of separating colloid or molecular particles from a solute by filtration, using suction or pressure, through a colloidal filter or semipermeable membrane
Sinus venosis
Where pacemaker is located in fish
Sinoatrial node
Where pacemaker is located in vertebrates besides fish
Pacemaker
Consists of a group of small, weakly contractile, specialized muscle cells capable of spontaneous activity.
Neurogenic heart (invertebrate)
Heart where pacemaker is nerve cells
Myogenic heart (vertebrate)
Heart where pacemaker is made of muscle cells
Ectopic pacemaker
Pacemaker situated outside area where normally found
Pacemaker potential
The spontaneous and rhythmic depolarizations produced by pacemaker tissue
electrocardiogram
(ECG) A record of electrical events associated with contractions of the heart; typically obtained with electrodes placed on the surface of the body.
Atrioventricular node
Specialized conduction tissue in the heart that, along with Purkinge fibers, forms a bridge of electrical conduction of excitation waves from the atria to the ventricles
Bundle of his
The conduction tissue within the interventricular septum of the mammalian heart.
Purkinje fibers
Junctional fibers that convey the wave of excitation from the bundle of His after it branches and that extend into the myocardium of the two ventricles
Endocardium
Internal lining of the heart wall
Epicardium
External covering of the heart wall
Negative chronotropic effect
When acetylcholine is released from parasympathetic fibers it slows heart rate. This decrease in heart rate is the negative chronotropic effect.
Atrioventricular block
When high levels of actylcholine completely block conduction through the atrioventricular node.
Positive chronotropic effect
Catacholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine increase the rate of myocardial contractions, or heart rate.
Positive inotropic effect
Catacolamine epinephrine and norepinephrine increase the force of myocardial contraction.
Positive dromotropc effect
Catacolamine epinephrine and norepinephrine increase the force of myocardial contraction
Efficiency of contraction
The mechanical work done by the heart, expressed as a fraction of the total energy expended.
Pericardium
The sac of connective tissue that encloses the heart.
Bulbus
A heart chamber
Brady cardia
A reduction in heart rate from a normal level.
Ductus arteriosis
The vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal mammals.
Foramen ovale
A hole in the interatrial septum covered by a flap valve, which directs oxygenated blood returning to the heart via the inferior vena cava into the left atrium.
Chorioallantois
In a bird egg, a network of blood vessels called the chorioallantoid lies just under the shell. This is a site of oxygen exchange.
Laminar flow
A pattern of turbulence free flow of fluid in a vessel or past a moving object; a gradient of relative velocity exists in which the fluid layers closest the wall have the lowest relative velocity.
Viscosity
A physical property of fluids that determines the ease with which layers of a fluid move past each other
Turbulent flow
A flow pattern in which sharp gradients and inconsistencies in velocity and direction of fluid flow exist.
Reynold’s number (Re)
A unitless number; the tendency of a flowing gas of liquid to become turbulent in proportion to its velocity and density and in inverse proportion to its viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity
Viscosity divided by density; gases of equal kinematic viscosity will become turbulent at equal flow rates in ideal airways.
Hematocrit
Volume of red blood cells per unit volume of blood.
Poiseuille’s law
The principle that, in laminar flow, the flow is directly proportional to the driving pressure, and resistance is independent of flow.
Fahraeus-lindqvist effect
The reduction in the apparent viscosity of blood as it flows into small arterioles.
Plasma skimming
The separation of plasma from blood within the circulation.
Compliance
The change in length or volume per unity change in the applied force.
Endothelium
A single cell layer forming the internal lining of blood vessels.
Vasa vasorum
The tiny arteries and veins that supply nutrients to and remove waste products from the tissues in the walls of large blood vessels.
Pressure pulse
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
Rete mirabile
The countercurrent arrangement of small arterioles and venules is referred to as a rete mirabile.
Pericyte cells
A few elongated cell with the ability to contract, called pericyte cells, are found wrapped around capillaries.
Continuous calipillaries
Continuous capillaries, which are the least permeable, are located in muscle, neuronal tissue, the lungs, connective tissue, and exocrine glands.
Fenestrated capillaries
Fenestrated capillaries, which exhibit intermediate permeability, are found in the renal glomerulus intestines, and endocrine glands.
Sinusoidal capillaries
Sinusoidal capillaries, which are the most permeable, are present in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and adrenal cortex.
Colloid osmotic pressure
High pressures inside a capillary result in the filtration of fluid from the blood plasma into the interstitial space. This filtration pressure is opposed by the colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma, which results largely from the higher concentration of proteins in the blood plasma than in the interstitial fluid.
Starling hypothesis
The net movement of fluid at any point along the capillary is determined by two factors: (a) the difference between blood pressure and colloid osmotic pressure and (b) the permeability of the capillary wall, which tends to increase toward the venous end. This concept is sometimes referred to as the starling hypothesis.
Edema
Retention of interstitial fluid in organs or tissues.
Lymph
The plasma like fluid collected from interstitial fluid and returned to the bloodstream via the thoracic duct; contains white, but not red, blood cells.
Thoracic duct
A duct through which fluid from the lymphatic system returns to the bloodstream.
Villi
Small, fingerlike projections (e.g., on the intestinal epithelium).
Central lacteal
A small, blind-ended lymph vessel in the center of an intestinal villus that functions in the uptake of fats and some vitamins.
Lymphocytes
White blood cells produced in lymphoid tissue that lack cytoplasmic granules and have a large, round nucleus.
Baroreceptors
A sensory receptor that is stimulated by changes in pressure, as in the walls of blood vessels.
Medullary cardiovascular center
A group of neurons in the medulla involved in the integration of information used in the control and regulation of circulation.
A-fiber
Myelinated A-fiber afferents respond to changes in heart rate and appear to relay information on heart rate to cardiovascular control centers located in the medulla oblongata..
B-fiber
Myelinated B-fiber afferents respond to increases in the rate of filling and volume of the atria.
C-fiber
The third type of atrial mechanoreceptor comprises unmyelinated C-fiber afferents innervating the junction of the veins and atria.
Diuresis
An increase in urine production.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
(ANP) One of a family of peptide hormones cleaved from a single precursor peptide and produced in the cardiac atria; its physiological effects in clued increased urine output, increased sodium excretion, and receptor-mediated vasodilation, the net result of which is lowered blood pressure.
Natriuresis
As the name indicates, ANP causes an increase in Na+ excretion (natriuresis) and in urine production.
Chromaffin cells
Epinephrine-secreting cells of the adrenal medulla; named for their high affinity for chromium salt stains.
Neuropeptide Y
A 36-animo-acid peptide, co-localized with norepinephrine in sympathetic ganglia and adrenergic nerves and localized in some nonadrenergic fibers, the physiolocical effects of which include reduction in the action of catecholamines on the mammalian heart and potentiation of the action of catecholamines on fish hearts.
Hyperemia
Increased blood flow to a tissue or an organ.
Ischemia
The absence of blood flow to an organ or a tissue.
Active hyperemia
The increase in blood flow during and after increased activity in a tissue, particularly skeletal muscle.
Reactive hyperemia
Higher than normal blood flow that occurs following a brief period of ischemia.
Nitric oxide (NO)
A gas that functions as intercellular messenger, including neurotransmitters; is endothelium-derived relaxing factor; destroys intracellular microbes.
Endothelins
Family of peptides secreted by many tissues that can act as a paracrine or hormonal signal; one major action is vasoconstriction.
Prostacyclin
Eicosanoid that inhibits platelet aggregation in bloodclotting; also called prostaglandin I2 (PGI2)
Thromboxane A2
Thromboxane that, among other effects, stimulates platelet aggregation in blood clotting.
Histamine
The base formed from histidine by decarboxylation; responsible for dilation of blood vessels.
Plasma kinins
Peptide hormones formed in the blood after injury – for example, bradykinin.
Extrinsic cascade
Extrinsic clotting pathway – formation of fibrin clots by pathway using tissue factor on cells in interstitium; once activated, it also recruits the intrinsic clotting pathway beyond factor XII.
Intrinsic pathway
Intrinsic clotting pathway – intravascular sequence of fibrin clot formation initiated by factor XII or, more usually, by the initial thrombin generated by the extrinsic clotting pathway.
Thrombus
A clot in the circulation that blocks blood flow.