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39 Cards in this Set

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Rhodopsins
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment with 11-cis retinal as its prosthetic group; found in the rods and cones of the vertebrate retina and in the eyes of many other phyla; bleaches to ‘visual yellow’ (all-trans-retinal) when it absorbs incident light
Fovea (area centralis)
The portion of the mammalian retina that has the highest visual resolution due to the small divergence and convergence in the pathways linking photoreceptors to retinal ganglion cells; in primates, contains closely packed cone cells
Endolymph
The aqueous solution surrounding many hair-cell sensory receptors, including cochlear hair cells; it has a high K+ concentration and a low Na+ concentration
Hair cells
A mechanosensory epithelial cell bearing stereocilia and in some cases a kinocilium
Stereocilia
Nonmotile filament-filled projections of hair cells, lacking the internal structure of motile “9 + 2” cilia
Kinocilium
A true “9 + 2” or “9 + 0” cilium present in sensory hair cells.
Labeled line coding
A pattern of info processing in the nervous system in which each neuron encodes only one particular type of info (eg sour stimuli in the taste system), and all of the axons that carry that type of info project to the same location or locations
Quality
A property that distinguishes sensory stimuli within a sensory modality (eg color is a quality of visual stimuli)
Stretch receptors
A sensory receptor that responds to stretch, typically associated with lungs, blood vessels, or muscle tissue
Pupil
The opening at the center of the iris through which light passes into the eye
Interoceptive (internal) receptors
Sensory receptors that respond to changes inside the body
Proprioceptors
Sensory receptors situated primarily in muscles and tendons that relay information about the position and relative motion of parts of the body
Transduction
The transformation of one kind of energy or signals into another kind of energy or signal
Threshold of detection
In sensory transduction, the minimum stimulus energy that will produce a response in a receptor 50% of the time
Receptor potential
A change in membrane potential elicited in sensory receptor cells by sensory stimulation, which changes the flow of ionic current across the plasma membrane
Phasic receptor
A sensory receptor that produces action potentials during only part of a sustained stimulus, typically at the onset or offset of the stimulus, or in some cases both.
Tonic receptors
Sensory receptors that continue to fire action potentials throughout the duration of a stimulus and can thus directly convey info about how long the stimulus lasts
Generator potential
A change in transmembrane potential within the receptive portion of a sensory neuron whose amplitude is graded with stimulus intensity and is sufficiently large at the spike-initiating zone to produce action potentials
Dynamic range of receptor cell
The range of energy over which a sensory system is responsive and can encode info about stimulus intensity
Sensory adaptation
The process by which a sensory system becomes less sensitive to stimuli during prolonged or repeated stimulation
Range fractionation
The arrangement by which receptors within a sensory modality are turned to receive info within relatively narrow, but not identical, intensity ranges, so the entire dynamic range of the modality is divided among different classes of receptors.
Autoinhibition
Self-inhibition
Lateral inhibition
Reciprocal suppression of excitation by neighboring neurons in a sensory network; produces enhanced contrast at boundaries and an increase in dynamic range
Olfactory receptors
Respond to airborne molecules
Chemoreceptors
A sensory receptor that is specifically sensitive to certain molecules
Gustatory receptors
Receptor molecules involved in taste
Cochlea
A portion of the inner ear of many vertebrates; a tapered tube wound in mammals into a spiral like the shell of a snail, containing hair-cell receptors for detecting sound
Organ of Corti
The part of the cochlea that contains the hair cells
Thermoreceptors
Sensory nerve ending specifically responsive to temperature changes
Photoreceptors
Sensory neuron that is tuned to receive light energy
Retinal
The aldehyde of retinal obtained from the enzymatic oxidative cleavage of carotene; in the 11-cis form, it unites with opsins in the retina to form the visual pigments
Ommatidium (ommatadia)
The functional unit of the invertebrate compound eye, consisting of an elongated structure with a corneal lens, a focusing cone, and several photoreceptors
Rhabdomere
The light absorbing part of a retinular cell that faces the central axis of an ommatidium; the photopigment-bearing plasma membrane is expanded intro closely packed microvilli, increasing the amount of photosensitve membrane
Rhabdome
The aggregate structure consisting of a longitudinal rosette of rhabdomeres arranged axially in the ommatidium
Cornea
The clear surface of the eye through which light passes as it enters the eye
Corneal lens
The clear structure at the outside surface of an ommatidium; it admits and focuses light entering the ommatidium.
Retina
The photosensitive inner surface of the vertebrate eye
Vomeronasal organ
Mediates chemical communication among animals of the same species. Detects pheremones
Mechanoreceptors
A sensory receptor turned to respond to mechanical distortion or pressure