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35 Cards in this Set

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what is feed processing?
the procedure of making alterations to a feed ingredient either by: physical, chem. thermal, or microbial fermentation before it is fed to animals.
what are the 10 reasons for feed processing?
1. isolation of parts.
2. alter physical form or size
3. improve palatability
4. inprove digestibility
5. prevent spoilage
6. detoxification
7, improve feed intake
8. facilitate transportation
9. facilitates storage
10. reduce wastage
why would isolation of specific parts in feed processing be useful?
isolate parts of seed such as removal of hull or breaking of waxy seed coat as to facilitate digestion by microbes and digestive juices
how would you improve palatability during feed processing?
roasting
why would feed processing become concerned with improving digestibility, example?
in ruminants, digestibility tends to decrease as level of feeding increases due to fast passage of feed in GIT. Appropriate processing method may counteract the decline in digestibility
To detoxify in feed processing,what would have to be done?
during pelleting, the heat inactivates heat-liable toxins.
addition of ferrous sulphate in cotton seed cake removes gossypol toxicity
how does feed processing facilitate transportation?
reduces bulkiness and increases density
how does feed processing facilitate storage?
drying reduces rancidity, mold
how is wastage reduced in feed processing?
uniform product, the animals can't pick out what they want to eat.
the the feed processing method to be effective it must increase ___ and rate of ___, be utilized more ___ or reduce _____
consumption
rate of gain
utilized more efficiently
reduce wastage
what are the 6 methods involved in feed processing?
1. cutting and chopping
2. chem. tx.
3. sun or art. drying
4. direct heat tx.
5. pelleting
6. grinding
why would chem. tx in feed processing be useful?
to improve utilization of low quality feedstuffs e.g. crop residues
alkaline cmpds such as urea, NaOH or sodium bicarb.
why is sun or art. drying useful in feed processing?
grass w/ 60-75% moisture content must be dried to 15% moisture to maintain its quality and storage
what are the methods of direct heat tx. ?
steam rolling/ dry rolling
boiling
cooking or frying
what are some examples of direct heat tx.?
sorghum (milo) processing can be: ground, dry-rolled, steam processed flaked, pressure cooked flaked, popped (low density feed), micronized (infrared energy), exploded
how are pellets made, why is pelleting useful ?
grinding the feed and forcing it through a die. Pelleting prevents sorting by animals
why is grinding by using roller or hammer mills useful?
coursely ground grains are more favored by ruminants. Fine and dusty meals are favored by monogastrics.
what are the 8 negative effects of processing feeds?
1. mailard rxn.
2. decreased promotion of growth
3. vit. destroyed by heat
4. alters micro elements
5. acreolins
6. destroyed vitamins
7. reduction in intake
8. increased rate of passage
what is the Mailard reaction
a reaction that takes palce when proteins are excessively heated in the presence of carbohydrates. Reaction leads to binding of lysine and other AA to pentose sugars making them partially unavailable to the animal.
what happens when proteins are heated too much?
denaturation, the animals cannot utilize them for growth
what does heat do to vitamins?
most vitamins are heat liable and easily destroyed by heat.
how are acreolins produced?
excessive heating of fat will result into production of acreolins which are toxic to most animals.
what happens to vitamins when ground grains are stored?
destruction of vitamins (easily oxidized)
when feedstuff is finely ground what happens?
feed intake is reduced
what happens when forage in ground or chopped too much?
increases rate of passage in ruminants leading to reduced digestibility
what are the 7 factors to consider when formulating rations?
1. nutrient req.
2. availability of feed ingredients
3. cost of feed
4. physical comp. of feed
5. presence of toxic factors
6. type or ration-complete, supplemental
7. level of consumption
what are the 2 types of rations?
complete
supplemental
what are complete feeds?
supply all the required nutrients and can be fed as sold ration without any supplement except water.
what is a supplementary feed?
for herbivores, are fed over and above basal roughage ration, to meet required nutrient demand
cost of feeds constitutes ___ percentage of the livestock production enterprise. Diet formulation must therefore be ____ feasilbe.
large percentage
economically feasible
in formulating diets, various feed ingredients are combined to meet the ____ ____ of the animal
nutrient requirements
nutrient requirement of an animal is based on what two things, and what are the 5 terms they can be expressed in?
based on specie and physiological function
terms: energy, fat, protein, mineral elements, and vitamins
The NRC is used for feeding guidelines for which animals?
farm animals, horses, dogs, and cats.
where are feedstuffs analysis peformed?
laboratory analysis of feed ingredients can be done by commerical lab's or such service is rendered by state
average comp. data of feed ingredients can be obtained from the ___ tables.
NRC