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41 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 functions of blood?
-supply cells with hormones, oxygen, nutrients, electrolytes, water
-function in immune sytem
-remove waste
What are two blood functions in the immune system?
-innate (granulocytes involved in phagocytosis)
-acquired (B and T lymphocytes)
What are 4 fluid componants of blood?
-water
-plasma proteins
-fibrinogen
-immunoglobulins (IG's & Ab's)
What are 5 examples of plasma proteins?
-hemoglobin
-albumen
-lipoproteins
-glycoproteins
-transferrin
What are three formed elements of blood?
-red blood cells
-white blood cells
-platelets
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Serum is spun after clotting occurs which seperates out formed elements and fibrinogen, where-as plasma has an anti-coagulant mixed in so fibrinogen is present but uneffective (spun anytime)
What are red blood cells composed of?
-55-60% water
-30-36% hemaglobin
-5% organic matrix
What function do RBCs serve?
-transfer oxygen (in HgB)
What is the lifespan of RBC's and what destroys them?
*species specific:
-70 days in cats to 150 days in horses
+destroyed from old age and from the spleen, liver, bone marrow
Where does fetal erythropoiesis occur?
-allantois
-liver
-bone marrow
Where does adult erythropoiesis occur?
-all bone marrow initially
-eventually limited to red bone marrow found in flat bones and epiphyses of long bones
What important hormone is produced in the kidney which controls RBC production?
-erythropoietin
-responds to relative hypoxia due to anemia, altitude, and exercise
What are three things needed for RBC production?
-protein
-minerals (Fe, Cu, Co)
-vitamins (B vit)
What is the difference between malnutrition and protein restriction?
-malnutrition leads to anemia whereas restriction leads to decreased RBC production
How long does it take for RBC to mature?
-about 100 hours
What are 4 types of granulocytes?
-neutrophils
-eosinophils
-basophils
-monocytes
Where are WBC's made?
-bone marrow
What are 4 functions of neutrophils?
-phagocytosis
-chemotaxis
-life span only about 6 hours
-random destruction
Where are neutrophil reserves?
-bone marrow
-circulating population
-blood vessel walls
What are three functions of eosinophils?
-phagocytosis
-release antihistamines to control inflammationg
-elevated in allergy, parasitism, and immune related conditions
What are basophils called when in tissues rather than blood?
-mast cell
What are two functions of basophils?
-phagocytosis (? I thought only monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils were?)
-release histamines to initiate inflammatory response by causin leaky vessels
What is the function of monocytes?
-phagocytosis
-antigen processin gfor presentation to both B and T cells
What are monocytes called when in tissues?
-macrophages
Where are the sites of immunocompetence of lymphocytes?
-B cells=bone marrow
-T cells=thymus
What are the secondary lymphatic organs of lymphocytes?
-spleen
-lymph nodes
-tonsils
-peyers patches
What are the functions of B cells?
-antibody production (plasma cells)
What are the functions of T cells?
-cellular immunity
-helper, killer suppressor, memory T cells
What are platelets also known as?
?megakaryocytes?
What function to platelets serve?
-clotting
Where do you collect blood from a horse?
dog?
cat?
cow?
sheep/goat?
-jugular
-cephalic/jugular
-cephalic
-tail/jugular/mammary
-jugular
What is the hemogram part of a CBC give you (4)?
-RBC count
-WBC count
-HgB
-Hct
What do you get in a differential cell count of a CBC?
-WBC's (n, e, b, m, l's)
-Platelets
-cell morphology
What would be different (and how) in a CBC for an anemic animal?
-decreased RBC count
-decreased HgB
-decreased Hct
What occurs during anemia?
-decreased oxygen carrying capacity from blood loss, decreased RBC production, and increase RBC destruction
What changes can be seen in a CBC in response to infection?
*species variability
-generally leukocytosis
-left shifts
-eosinophilia
-leukopenia
What are the two types of left shifts?
-degenerative left shift (decreased WBC)
-regenerative left shift (increased WBC)
*both have increased band cells
What types of infections can cause eosinophilia?
*increased eosinophils
-parasites
-allergy
-autoimmune
What type of infection can cause leukopenia?
*decreased WBC
-viral disease
-endotoxemia
-septicemia
-enteritis
What is the purpose of a PCV?
*Packed Cell Volume is also known as hematocrit reading
-number of blood cells to indicate anemia or dehydration
What does a high PCV count indicate?
Low?
-increased PCV indicates dehydration since the ratio of liquid is much less than formed elements
-anemia is indicated by low PCV counts