Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/70

Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are three alternative ways of medical treatment?
-acupuncture
-chiropractic
-homeopathic
What was the "Yellow Emperor's Classic on Internal Medicine"?
-most important book of traditional Chinese medicine
-set standards and described the philosophy of acupuncture
-incorporated principles into the Nei Ching around 700 BC
What does Acupuncture mean?
When was this term for used and by whom?
-"Puncturing with needles"
-late 1600's by the Dutchman Wilhelm Ten Rijn
What does IVAS stand for and when was it formed?
-International Veterinary Acupuncture Society in 1974
What theory is the basic one for Chinese acupuncture?
Yin-Yang theory
What does Yin represent?
-a negative, passive quality such as the moon, autumn, winter, north, and west.
What does Yang represent?
-a positive, active quality such as the sun, summer, spring, east, and south
How is balance achieved in the Yin-Yang theory?
-Yin and Yang constantly interact and react with each other
What does the Yin-Yang theory separate body organs into?
Two categories of:
ts'ang and fu
Describe ts'ang organs (3) and list 5 organs
-Yin
-generally responsible for absorption, transformation, and transportation of nutritive elements
relatively solid
-heart, pericardium, liver, spleen, kidney
What are 3 traits of fu organs? What are 6 such organs?
-Yang
-generally responsible for storage and excretion
-hollow
-gall bladder, sm intestine, lg intestine, stomach, urinary bladder, triple burner
According to the Yin-Yang theory, when does disease occur?
-When the Yin-Yang balance in the body is upset.
What theory is the basic dynamic energy of the universe?
-Ch'i
How does acupuncture use Ch'i?
-it attempts to correct the imbalances between yin and yang (disease) by manipulating Ch'i
How does Ch'i move through the body?
-it moves in a specific pattern throughout the body
What is the Meridian theory?
-The use of acupuncture points
-"Ching lo theory"
What are the large channels called?
Small channels?
-ching mo
-lo mo
How do the channels work in the Ching lo theory (3)?
-form interconnecting pathways on the surface & interior of the body
-provide a network linking individual acupuncture points on teh body to to visceral organs
-channels promote circulation of Ch'i and blood, so that the ts'ang and fu organs & other tissues can be properly nourished, maintain normal physiologic activities and sustain a healthy equilibrium of yin and yang
How do you use acupuncture points to form a diagnosis of visceral organ?
-a diseased visceral organ cuases tender points along the related meridian
-these points along with an exam form an educational basis
What is the purpose of therapeutic acupuncture?
-to attempt to keep the balance of yin and yang in the body through the manupulation of Ch'i by the needle
What are 9 methods of stimulation for acupuncture?
-dry needle (most common)
-electro
-aqua
-moxibustion
-bleeding
-injection
-implantation
-acupressure
-laser stimulation
What things vary depending on what is being treated?
-method of point stimulation
-length of treatment
-frequency
What is the Western Scientific theory of acupuncture?
Stimulation of specific predetermined points on the bodys to achieve a therapeutic or homeostatic effect
Where are the acupuncture points in general?
Areas on the skin of decreased electrical resistance or increased electrical conductivity
What is a Type I acupuncture point?
1. Motor points
2. Pnt near where nerve enters muscle
3. Pnt in a muscle which when electrical stimulation is applied will produce a max contraction w/min intensity of stimulation
Where are Type II acupuncture points located?
On superficial nerves
Where are Type III acupuncture points located?
At high density foci of superficial nerves & nerve plexi
Where are Type IV acupuncture points located?
At muscle/tendon junctions
Which Type of acupuncture point (ie; Type I, II, III, or IV) makes up 67% of all points?
Type I makes up 67% of all points
What are the three physiological mechanism theories proposed for accupuncture?
1. Neural Opiate Theory
2. Hormonal Opiate Theory
3. Autonomic Theory
What is released and what do they do under the neural opiate theory?
1. Endogenous opiates, endorphins and encephalins secondary to nerve stimulation
2. Inhibits pain perception
What is the thought behind the hormonal opiate theory?
Interaction of nerve stimulation w/the release of hormones from the brain
What is the "thought" behind autonomic theory of acupuncture?
Cutaneous needle stimulation is transmitted to the internal organs through the somatovisceral (nerve to organ) connections in the spinal cord
What is the long ass winded definition of Chiropractic? (I would call this more a philisophic definition)
Science and art based on the inherent recuperative powers of the body & relationship b/w the nervous system & spinal column, including its immediate articulations & role of this relationship in restoration/maintenance of health
What is the other little blurp of a definition of Chiropractic? (this is more a science def)
The science of locating & eliminating subluxatins from the spine
WHat does chiropractors deal most exclusively with?
The pathologies and dysfunction created by vertebral subluxations
What are the pathological chain of events that lead to Subluxations (I think these lead to subluxations)
1. Vertebral misalignment
2. Neuropathy
3. Kinesiopathy
4. Neurological or biomechanical dysfunction
5. Degeneration & tissue death
What does initial misalignment result from? (chiropractic)
From trauma to the vertebrae or from noxious stimuli to the nervous system
What is a vertebral subluxation complex? (chiropractic)
Clinical entity of disrelationship of 2 vertebrae in a motor unit resulting in disturbance of normal function
What is a motor unit? (chiropractic)
2 adjacent vertebrae and their associated structures
What are the two kinesiopathy components? (chiropractic)
1. Hypomobility
2. Hypermobility
What is hypomobility? (chiropractic)
1. Fixation or lack of motion in the motor unit
2. Stiffness, pain, arthritis, disc degeneration
What is hypermobility? (chiropractic)
1. Increased motion in motor unit
2. Stress on ligamentous components as well as joint capsule-pain
What are the two neuropathy components of subluxations? (chiropractic)
1. Facilitation
2. Inhibition
What is Facilitation? (chiropractic)
1. nerve hyperactivity in response to damage/stress
2. End organ stimulation
What is inhibition? (chiropractic)
1. Sustained pressure leading to nerve degeneration
2. Muscle atrophy, gland dysfunction, sensory anaesthesia
In general misalignment creates numerous problems including (chiropractic):
1. Crowding of contents of invertebral formen
2. Tension on meningeal tissues
3. alterations in invertebral disc mechanics
4. spasm of spinal musculature
5. Stresses on ligamentous tissues
What do the misalignment problems cause? (chiropractic)
Pain and altered movement, performance, etc.
What is chiropractic manipulation?
Correction of the vertebral subluxation complex
The adjustment is a specific method in which subluxated vertebrae are replaced into normal spinal alignment, what does it involve?
Short lever, high velocity, specific and controlled thrusts by hand or instrument that are directed at specific articulations and intended to restore biomechanical & neurologic function
So, the adjustments contain briefly what? (chiropractic manipulation)
1. specific vertebrae
2. specific direction
3. specific force
4. specific time
What is the success of chiropractic adjustment based on?
The restoration of joint function & the disappearance of signs and symptoms
Along the topic of chiropractic adjustment success, kinesiopathy & neuropathy can be reversed if...?
Tissue destruction has not yet occured
Who created Homeopathy, What does "homoios" mean? What about "pathy"?
Dr. Samuel Hahnemann
Homoios = similiar
Pathy = suffering
What is the basic principle of Homeopathy?
1. Treating like w/like
2. Simile principle/Law of Similars
How is a homeopathic remedy selected?
For its ability to produce similar signs or symptoms in a healthy individual to those experienced by the patient
So I guess we have a disease picture and a drug picture. What's the goal of Homeopathy?
To match these pictures as closely as possible
What does homeopathic medicine accomplish by stimulatin the same symptoms?
Assists the body's natural forces for recovery. (Immune stimulation?)
What are 5 homeopathic medicine types?
1. Plant vegetable substances
2. Animal Substances
3. Chemical elements & minerals
4. Biological sources
5. Mother tinctures
What percentage of all remedies do plant vegetable substances make up? (Homeopathy)
60%
What kind of plants are used in plant vegetable homeopathy?
Flowers, whole plants, leaves, stems, bark, woods, roots, buds, berries, fruits, seeds, bulbs, corn
What percentage of all remedies do animal substances make up? (Homeopathy)
20%
What kind of animal substances are used in homeopathy?
bees, beetles, snake venom, cuttlefish juice
What are some chemicale elements/minerals used in homeopathy?
NaCl, Charcoals, Lead, CaCO2
What are the two categories of biological sources for homeopathy?
1. Sarcodes
2. Nosodes
What are some examples of sarcodes? (homeopathy)
1. fresh organs, glandular or tissue extracts removed from healthy pigs, sheep or cattle
2. Pancreas, adrenals, kidney
What are some examples of nosodes? (homeopathy)
1. morbid or diseased tissues
2. ex: pus
What is used for mother tinctures? (homeopathy)
1. The biological sources purified and in their most conventrated forms
2. they are then serially diluted until they are present in very minute amounts
What are methods of administration of these homeopathic medicines?
liquids, tablets, pills (pilules), granules, powders, ointments, creams, injectables, suppositories
Homeopathy is treatment of what (philisophical)
Physical and mental