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43 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of immunology?
-The study of the physiological response by which the body destroys or neutralizes foreign matter, both living and non-living, as well as altered cells of its own.
What is immunity
-All the mechanisms used by the body as protection against envronmental agents that are foreign to the body (as well as altered cells of itself)
-generally termed antigens
What are some types of immunity?
-acquired (adaptive)
What is innate immunity?
(Innate defense mechanisms)
-All those elements with which an individual is born and that are always present and available at very short notice to protet the individual from challenges by "foreign" material
-also termed non-specific
- present at all times
-modulated b physiological conditions
-does not distinguish between microorganisms (non-specific)
-does not alter in intensity upon re-exposure (no memory)
What are the components of the innate immune system? (6)
-physical barriers
-mucous membranes
-secreted products (stomach acid, lysozomes, sebaceous glands. saliva,cerumen)
-antimicrobial proteins
What are the two major WBC's?
-macrophages ("big eaters") that use phagocytosis and process antigens for presentation to B and T cells
-polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) that are attracted to sites of invasion (chemotaxis) or attack invaders using phagocytosis
*neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
What are some signs of inflammation?
-loss of function
How does inflammation occur?
-injured cells release histamine and leukocytosis INDUCING FACTOR
-chemotaxis is the process of the factor signaling the histamine and WBC and the response (coming) of the histamine and WBC
-vasodilation occurs due to histamine (heat, redness, enlargment of blood vessels)
-This leads to "leaky" vessels into tissue
-heparin keeps area from clotting
*wha-la! Inflammation!
When was heparin mentioned?
Where are RBC's and WBC's produced?
-in red bone marrow
What is cerumen?
-ear wax
Describe complement proteins (4)?
-cascade of over 20 proteins in bloodstream
-increase inflammation (increased vasodilation, increased chemotaxis, increased leasky vessels)
-membrane attack complex (MAC)
What is opsonization?
-prepare for eating
-coats bacterial cell wall and facilitates phagocytosis
What are MAC's?
-membrane attack complex
-group of complement proteins that destroys microbial cell walls
What are the two components of the acquired immunity?
-humoral immunity
-cellular immunity
Describe acquired immunity (7).
-specific defense mechanisms
-more specialized than innate immunity
-generally activated after innate defense mechanisms are breached
-present only in vertebrates
-must be stimulated by a specific infection or foreign material (antigen)
-capable of distinguishing among microorganisms
-alters in intensity and response time upon re-exposure to the specific antigen (memory)
What is the primary defense against free pathogens (not in cells)?
-humoral immunity
Describe how humoral immunity works.
-mediated by serum antibodies (Ab/Ig)
-B lymphocytes in bone marrow acquire AB on surface which only respond to specific antigens
-When stimulated by that antigen, they are activated to form populations of plasma cells and memory cells both of which produce that specific antibody.
What are the immunoglobulin classes?
What is immunocompetence?
-What B lymphocytes in bone marrown acquire antibodies on the surface which will respond to specific antibodies only
What are immunoglobulins commonly known as?
What are antibodies built of in the blood?
What produces antibodies?
-plasma cells
Where do plasma cells come from?
-properly stimulated B lymphocytes found in primary and secondary lymphatic organs
What are 4 properties of antibodies?
-neutralization of toxins
-immobilization of microorganisms (allow for phagocytosis)
-form precipitates with antigen (allow for phagocytosis)
-activation of complement/opsonization (to increase phagocytosis and inflammation)
What are memory cells(4)?
-arise from properly stimulated, specific B cells
-live for months to years
-produce specific antibodies
-responsible for the secondary immune response (anamnestic response)
What is the primary defense against pathogens that have already entered cells?
-cellular immunity
What is cellular immunity mediated by?
-T lymphocytes found in primary and secondary lymphatic organs and blood stream
Where do T lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
-in thymus (only react to specific antigens)
What are the T-cell populations?
*antigen must first be processed and presented to the T-cell by the macrophage
-effector cells
-helper cells
-killer cells
-memory cells
-supressor cells
What do helper cells do?
-enhance the response of other T and B cells to antigens (increased antibody production by B cells)
What do killer cells do?
-cause cell lysis
What are three things a macrophage does?
-activates helper T-cells
-"presents" antigen to B and T cells
Where does B-cells become immunocompetent and what is this known as?
-In bone marrow which is known as the primary lymphatic organ
What are the secondary lymphatic organs of B-cells?
-peripheral lymphnodes
-Peyers patches
What are PSC's and what do they do?
pluripotential stem cells (produce blood cells in bone marrow).
Once a B-cell is properly stimulated, what two goups are created?
-plasma cells (produce Ab)
-memory cells
What are the 3 phases to a primary immune response?
-latrent (lag) phase
-exponential phase
-declining phase
What are three different immune responses?
1) priming event
2) primary response
3) secondary response
What is the priming event in immune response?
-first exposure to a particular antigen
What is the secondary response also known as?
-anamestic response
What are 6 traits of secondary response?
-occurs with re-exposure to the specific antigen
-due to population of long lived memory cells
-shorter lag time
-great Ab production (increased exponential phase)
-Ab production continues much longer
-basis for vaccination programs (boosters)
What is the latrent phase of a primary immune response?
-lag time between exposure to antigen and measurable antibody in serum
-the time it takes for B cells to make contact with Ag, to proliferate, to differentiate in to plasma cells and then to secrete Ab in sufficient quantities that it can be detected in serum
What antibody makes up 80% of all serum antibodies which pass through the placenta and neutralizes toxins?