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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What causes bees to progress from job to job as they age?
Juvenile hormone, which is found in low concentrations in the blood of young nurse workers, but in much higher concentrations in older foragers.
Aside from the theory of hormones, why else might bees progress from job to job?
A deficit in social encounters with older foragers may have stimulated an early developmental transition from nurse to forager behavior.
Can any trait be purely genetic?
Do experiments show that birds remember exactly where they hide their food?
Fact: The individuals that had opportunities to store food gained more cells in the hippocampus than those birds lacking food-storing experience, a reflection of the fact that genes in hippocampal cells responded in different ways to different kinds of experiential inputs.
How do young adult female wasps recognize their sisters?
Learn what the occupants of their nest smell like.
Did biological sisters reared apart engage in fewer or the same amount of aggressive interactions than nonsiblings reared apart? Why?
Fewer; the "arm pit" effect
What is the "arm pit" effect?
Individuals can learn what they themselves smell like and then use this information as a reference against which to compare the odors of other individuals
What happened when the TRP2 gene was nocked out of a male mouse?
When a male mouse without the gene encounters another male in the lab cage, he tries to mate with it.

(If they lack the TRP2 gene, these cells are incapable of reacting to male odors, so that the knockout male never receives signals from the vomeronasal organ that a male is in the vicinity)
What is the vomeronasal organ?
An olfactory device in teh mouse nose, that contains a cluster of neurons that respond to sex-identifying mouse scents.
What does the 'for' gene code for?
Codes for the "cGMP-dependent protein kinase." This enzyme is produced in certain cells of the larval fruit fly's brain, leading to the still untested hypothesis that the gene and its protein may have a special role to play in the larva's ability to analyze its chemical environment.
How much of the variation in the onset of migratory activity was a result of genetic variation?
About 1/3 to 1/2
Fact: Young brush trurkeys do not require extensive social experienc ein order for rudimentary social behavior to develop, and as adults, teh birds are completely capable of normal sexual behavior despite having lived primarily by themselves beforehand
Are male crickets that live in complete isolation able to sing a normal species-specific song?
What is developmental homeostasis?
The ability of many animals to develop more or less normally, despite defective genes and deficient environments.
Why can the survival of a fetus and the intellectual development of a young person proceed successfully even under highly adverse conditions?
Our developmental systems evolved in past environments in which episodes of starvation were not uncommon.
What are polyphenisms?
Distinct alternative phenotypes coexist comfortably, with the differences arising as a result of environmental differences among the individual sin quest.
When is cannibalism likely to develop in salamanders?
When large number of unrelated individuals live together.
What happens in the GnRH gene after males switch from nonterritorial to territorial status?
It becomes increasingly active over time in certain brain cells.
Give an example of how fish respond to changes in their social status with changes in gene activity within specific brain cells.
The brain cells either grow in size for fish that have acquired a territory, or decrease in size for fish that have lost a territory
What are brood parasites?
Lay their eggs in other birds' nests
Why is the hippocampus considerably larger in female brown-headed cowbirds than in males?
Male cowbirds do not confront spatial problems like females do; females must search widely for nests to parasitize, which they must remember
What is operant conditioning?
An animal learns to assicate a voluntary action with the consequences that follow from that action.
What is the main devise used to develop operant conditioning?
Skinner boxes
Why do rats only take a small bite of anything new?
A rat cannot clear its digestive system of toxic foods by vomiting.