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39 Cards in this Set

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Competitive Exclusion principle
complete competitors cannot coexist, one eventually wins
Dispersal
complete and permanent emigration from home range
Home Range
area an animal occupies
Breeding dispersal
movement of adults between reproductive episodes to avoid inbreeding
Natal dispersal
emigration of young from their birth place as they approach sexual maturity
Philopatry
remaining in natal area where born
inbreeding depression
reduced fitness of offspring from closely related parents
migration
temporary movement between distant sites
homing
returning to birthplace to spawn
territory
defended space
dear enemy phenomenon
territorial animals less aggressive to neighbors than strangers
asymmetry of contest
owners almost always win territorial contests
optimality theory
a cost-benefit approach that considers a net fitness gain associated with a phenotype
optimal foraging theory
animal will maximize energy intake per unit time, assume translates to fitness
Darwinian puzzle
a trait that appears to reduce the fitness of individuals that have it
adaptation
a trait that increases fitness relative to others in the population
fitness
number of copies of alleles an animal contributes to the next generation
evolutionary arms race
species interactions affect fitness of each other, one never wins, constantly topping each other
comparative method
tests hypotheses about trait's evolution by comparing species of known evolutionary relationships
divergent evolution
related species will exhibit different behaviors and phenotypes with selection pressure
convergent evolution
unrelated species sharing similar selection pressure will have similar adaptive response
camouflage
avoid detection by blending in to background and behaving appropriately
vigilance
heightened state of alertness to see predator before it sees you
stotting
series of jumps to show predator you are healthy and would likely escape chase
mobbing
big group attacks to discourage a predator or threat from remaining in their territory
aposematic coloration
warning other animals they are toxic with color
Batesian mimicry
animal pretends it is toxic when really not, takes advantage of predator avoidance
selfish herd
each individual will act selfishly regardless of group, will always be jockeying for position
tonic immobility
play dead
Hans Kruuk
studied mobbing, C-B approach
Tim Caro
studied stotting with antelope and cheetahs
WD Hamilton
selfish herd, inclusive fitness
castration
removal of gonads
hormone
organic chemical messengers released directly into bloodstream
hormone receptor
molecules in/on target cells that can bind to a particular hormone
dose-dependence
hormone concentrations and rates of behavior co-vary
associated reproductive pattern
induced by environmental cue, seasonal change in reproductive behaviors correlated with changes in gonads and hormones
disassociated reproductive pattern
onset of reproductive behaviors not triggered by sharp change in hormones
Arnold Berthold
1st study in behavioral endocrinology with castrated roosters