Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/30

Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain the difference btw a Proximate and Ultimate Cause?

Example?
A proximate cause is the initial stimulus for an action - example the stickelback fish reacts to the red underside of other fish

The ultimate cause is how the behavior contributes to the survival and fitness of the species - Fish chases away other competitors to increase it's own chances of mating.
What is a FAP?


What is a sign Stimulus?
Fixed Action Pattern which is the sequence of unlearned innate behaviors that is unchangeable

It is triggered by an external sensory system known as sign stimulus (Seeing red is the sign stimulus)
What is imprinting and how is it unique?

Give an ultimate and proximate cause regarding imprinting.
Imprinting involves both a learning and innate component that is irreversible

What makes it unique is that there is a limited time window where the species can learn (Be imprinted).

Example of Goslings following the scientist.
The proximate cause of geese following scientist is because they think he's their mother, and follow him because he's the first one they see within the time window.

Ultimate- they have a much better chance of survival if they follow their real mother and see how she survives.
Behavior that is developmentally fixed and is under strong genetic influence is called

(Think Descartes)
Innate Behavior!
Give and explain an Innate behavior of birds
Migration - Many features of migratory behavior in birds have been found to be genetically programmed - studies show how offspring's flight will be in same direction as their parents, even without parental contact.
Communication is...


Type of animal communication depends on...


Name the 5 modes of communication
The reception and response to signals

animal's lifestyle and environment

Auditory
Visual
Tactile
Electrical
Chemical
What have scientists shown about courtship songs of insects?
Have shown they are under genetic control - take two different songs and interbreed to form a hybrid song.
Learning is...


operant conditioning is....

Problem solving can be learned TF
modification of behavior based on experience - cognition and problem solving


a type of associative learning where animal involves a reward or punishment with certain behavior (Cactus and coyote)

True, problem solving can be learned by watching other animals such as octipi
regarding behavior, due to the fact of genetic influence, natural selection can...
result in evolution of behavior traits in populations.
Explain Optimal Foraging Theory

Predation risks also affect where the deer feed
View foraging behavior as a compromise between the benefits of nutrition and the costs of obtaining food - must max energy intake to evolve (Hawk flying at different levels to drop shell thing to break)
What is Sexual Selection
Concerns evolution of traits that increase reproduction, not survival.

Sometimes sexual success evolves at the cost of lower survival (Peacock)
Why is peacocks tail so long and showy?
Due to bateman's principle -

Males increase their reproductive success with increased number of matings
Females increase their reproductive success with healthy partners

therefore females are choosy and males try to get as many mates as possible.
(Eggs expensive,sperm cheap)


Therefore, he wants to have an attractive tail because he wants to mate as much as possible to increase his reproductive success.
Females are limited by number of eggs, not mates, so the male peacocks wants to look as healthy as possible to mate.
What is intrasexual selection? Intersexual selection?
Male to male competition for female mate - involves ritualized battles or real ones.

Female choice is intersexual - which leads to male ornamentation - better looking, means better genes and females tend to prefer bright large features to prove this.
Monogamous
Polygamous
Polyandrous
One male mate with one female
One male mates with multiple females
One female mates with multiple males
What is Altruism?


Inclusive fitness?


Hamilton's rule?
Some animals help rear offspring of others without themselves reproducing - this unselfish behavior helps maximize an individuals chance of survival and reproduction

Altruistic behavior can be explained with inclusive fitness - Helping relative raise offspring helps you increase fitness indirectly and therefore it's called inclusive.

Hamilton's rule predicts when natural selection favors altruism instead
rB>C
r=coefficient of relatedness
B=Benefit, increased reproductive success of recipient
C=cost of reproductive success of giver.
What is Reciprocal Altruism?


Mate choice copying?
Helping a stranger (Unrelated) raise it's young with expectation that he will do the same for you when the time comes.


When one female likes a male, other females will tend to like this male also increasing his mating success and chances of reproduction.
What is a FAP?


What is a sign Stimulus?
Fixed Action Pattern which is the sequence of unlearned innate behaviors that is unchangeable

It is triggered by an external sensory system known as sign stimulus (Seeing red is the sign stimulus)
What is imprinting and how is it unique?

Give an ultimate and proximate cause regarding imprinting.
Imprinting involves both a learning and innate component that is irreversible

What makes it unique is that there is a limited time window where the species can learn (Be imprinted).

Example of Goslings following the scientist.
The proximate cause of geese following scientist is because they think he's their mother, and follow him because he's the first one they see within the time window.

Ultimate- they have a much better chance of survival if they follow their real mother and see how she survives.
Behavior that is developmentally fixed and is under strong genetic influence is called

(Think Locke)
Innate Behavior!
Give and explain an Innate behavior of birds
Migration - Many features of migratory behavior in birds have been found to be genetically programmed - studies show how offspring's flight will be in same direction as their parents, even without parental contact.
Communication is...


Type of animal communication depends on...


Name the 5 modes of communication
The reception and response to signals

animal's lifestyle and environment

Auditory
Visual
Tactile
Electrical
Chemical
What have scientists shown about courtship songs of insects?
Have shown they are under genetic control - take two different songs and interbreed to form a hybrid song.
Learning is...


operant conditioning is....

Problem solving can be learned TF
modification of behavior based on experience - cognition and problem solving


a type of associative learning where animal involves a reward or punishment with certain behavior (Cactus and coyote)

True, problem solving can be learned by watching other animals such as octipi
regarding behavior, due to the fact of genetic influence, natural selection can...
result in evolution of behavior traits in populations.
Explain Optimal Foraging Theory

Predation risks also affect where the deer feed
View foraging behavior as a compromise between the benefits of nutrition and the costs of obtaining food - must max energy intake to evolve (Hawk flying at different levels to drop shell thing to break)
What is Sexual Selection
Concerns evolution of traits that increase reproduction, not survival.

Sometimes sexual success evolves at the cost of lower survival (Peacock)
Why is peacocks tail so long and showy?
Due to bateman's principle -

Males increase their reproductive success with increased number of matings
Females increase their reproductive success with healthy partners

therefore females are choosy and males try to get as many mates as possible.
(Eggs expensive,sperm cheap)


Therefore, he wants to have an attractive tail because he wants to mate as much as possible to increase his reproductive success.
Females are limited by number of eggs, not mates, so the male peacocks wants to look as healthy as possible to mate.
What is intrasexual selection? Intersexual selection?
Male to male competition for female mate - involves ritualized battles or real ones.

Female choice is intersexual - which leads to male ornamentation - better looking, means better genes and females tend to prefer bright large features to prove this.
Monogamous
Polygamous
Polyandrous
One male mate with one female
One male mates with multiple females
One female mates with multiple males
What is Altruism?


Inclusive fitness?


Hamilton's rule?
Some animals help rear offspring of others without themselves reproducing - this unselfish behavior helps maximize an individuals chance of survival and reproduction

Altruistic behavior can be explained with inclusive fitness - Helping relative raise offspring helps you increase fitness indirectly and therefore it's called inclusive.

Hamilton's rule predicts when natural selection favors altruism instead
rB>C
r=coefficient of relatedness
B=Benefit, increased reproductive success of recipient
C=cost of reproductive success of giver.