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52 Cards in this Set

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PERSONALITY
DISTINCTIVENESS (unique collection of traits)

and

CONSISTENCY (relatively stable across time and situations)
PERSONALITY TRAIT
durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations

ex: honest, dependable, impulsive, anxious, excitable, friendly
ALLPORT
personality theorist who identified over 4500 personality traits
CATTELL
reduced Allport's list to just 16 basic dimensions of personality
McCRAE & COSTA
believe personality can be described with "Big Five" traits (5-factor model of personality)
"BIG FIVE"
McCrae & Costa's model of personality

"OCEAN":
1. (O)penness to new experience
2. (C)onscientiousness (constraint)
3. (E)xtraversion (positive emotionality)
4. (A)greeableness
5. (N)euroticism (negative emotionality)

(biological perspective)
4 PERSPECTIVES ON THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
1. Biological
2. Psychodynamic
3. Learning
4. Humanistic
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES
all theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces

Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler
SIGMUND FREUD
pscyhologist born in Vienna, Austria during 19th century Victorian era, marked by sexual repression; affected by WWI and anti-Semitism

psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalysis

(psychodynamic perspective)

- first to propose comprehensive theory
- "unconscious"
- importance of past experiences
- defense mechanisms
- importance of "sex" and "aggression"
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Freud's theory

Focuses on:
1. influence of early childhood experiences
2. unconscious motives and conflicts
3. methods ppl use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges
CRITICISMS OF FREUD'S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
1. suggested that ppl are not masters of their own minds
2. suggested that ppl are not masters of their own destinies
3. emphasis on how ppl cope with sexual urges offended conservative, Victorian values of his time
FREUD'S MODEL OF PERSONALITY STRUCTURE
3 components of personality:
1. id (pleasure principle)
2. ego (reality principle)
3. superego (social standards)
ID
- primitive, instinctive
- pleasure principle
- primary-process thinking
- "reservoir of psychic energy"
- houses raw biological urges (to eat, sleep, defacate, copulate, etc.) that energize human behavior

Ex: I want to take a nap NOW.
PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
demands immediate gratification of urges
PRIMARY-PROCESS THINKING
primitive, illogical, irrational, fantasy oriented way of thinking
EGO
- decision-making
- reality principle
- secondary-process thinking
- mediates between id and superego

Ex: "You haven't studied yet for the upcoming exam... and this lecture could help you decipher what you have/will quickly read over..."
REALITY PRINCIPLE
seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
SECONDARY-PROCESS THINKING
relatively rational, realistic, way of thinking that is oriented toward problem-solving
SUPEREGO
- moral component
- internalizes cultures' values/social standards about right and wrong
- when too strong = irrational, guilty
- emerges out of the ego at around 3-5 yrs of age

Ex: You MUST pay attention in class because you want to be "educated," no matter what.
FREUD'S LEVELS OF AWARENESS
1. Conscious (above surface)
2. Preconscious (just below surface)
3. Unconscious (well below surface)
CONSCIOUS
consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time

ex: current train of thought, dim awareness in the back of your mind that your eyes are getting tired and you're beginning to get hungry
PRECONSCIOUS
contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved

ex: your middle name, what you had for supper last night, or an argument you had with a friend yesterday
UNCONSCIOUS
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior

ex: forgotten trauma from childhood, hidden feelings of hostility toward a parent, and repressed sexual desires

"Freudian slips" = "slips of the tongue" that often reveal a person's true feelings

dreams often express hidden desires as well

psychoanalysis often helps patients discover feelings and conflicts they had previously been unaware of
FREUD'S MODEL OF PERSONALITY STRUCTURE (WITH LEVELS OF AWARENESS)
(like an iceberg)

CONSCIOUS = above water; contact with outside world
PRECONSCIOUS = material just beneath the surface of awareness
UNCONSCIOUS = enormous; well below the surface of awareness; difficult to retrieve material

ID = operates at unconscious level only
EGO = operates at all 3 levels
SUPEREGO = operates at all 3 levels
MISCHEL
"no such thing as 'personality'"

behavior seems to depend more on situation than anything attributable to the person
BUSS
evolutionary psychologist

"Yes, there is such a thing as 'personality'"

personality is adaptive for attracting and picking mates
QUALITIES BOTH FEMALES AND MALES PREFER IN A MATE
(EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGISTS)
1. being kind and understanding
2. having an exciting personality (personality characteristics!)
BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
1. Personalities are mostly inherited.
2. Eysenck's "PEN"
3. The Big Five ("OCEAN")
EYSENCK'S "PEN"
1. Psychoticism
2. Extraversion-Introversion
3. Neuroticism-emotional stability

(biological perspective)
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
EGO'S DEFENSE MECHANISMS
1. Repression
2. Displacement
3. Regression
4. Sublimination
RATIONALIZATION
- defense mechanism (but not according to Freud)
- creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
REPRESSION
- one of Ego's defense mechanisms according to Freud
- most basic, widely used
- keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
PROJECTION
- defense mechanism (but not according to Freud)
- attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another (usually thoughts that would make you feel guilty)

Ex: If lusting for a co-worker makes you feel guilty, you might attribute any latent sexual tension between the 2 of you to the other person's desire to seduce you.
DISPLACEMENT
- one of Ego's defense mechanisms according to Freud
- diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target

Ex: hitting your kids because you're upset at your boss
REACTION FORMATION
- defense mechanism (but not according to Freud)
- behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
- telltale sign = exaggerated quality of the opposite behavior

Ex: homophobic males who ridicule homosexuals are defending against their own latent homosexual impulses
REGRESSION
- one of Ego's defense mechanisms according to Freud
- reversion to immature patterns of behavior

Ex: massive exaggerations that virtually anyone can see through (such as boasting and bragging about how no one at your old job could compare to your skills, so you were let go to make others feel better about themselves)
SUBLIMATION
- one of Ego's defense mechanisms according to Freud
- redirecting "wrong" urges into socially acceptable actions

Ex: You want to chop people up into little pieces (NOT socially acceptable), so you become a surgeon (socially acceptable).
IDENTIFICATION
- defense mechanism (but not according to Freud)
- bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group

Ex: Adults joinging exclusive country clubs or civic organizations as a means of boosting their self-esteem via identification.
OBSERVATIONS WHICH INDUCED FREUD TO POSIT AN "UNCONSCIOUS"
1. Parapraxes (AKA Freudian Slips)
2. Wit (a form of sublimation)
3. Dreams (the royal road to the unconscious)
FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality

1. Oral (0-1)
2. Anal (2-3)
3. Phallic (4-5)
4. Latency (6-12)
5. Genital (Puberty onward)
ORAL STAGE OF FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
- Approx. Age: 0-1 yrs
- Erotic Focus: Mouth (sucking, biting)
- Key Tasks/Experiences: Weaning (from breast or bottle)
ANAL STAGE OF FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
- Approx. Age: 2-3 yrs
- Erotic Focus: Anus (expelling or retaining feces)
- Key Tasks/Experiences: Toilet training
PHALLIC STAGE OF FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
- Approx. Age: 4-5 yrs
- Erotic Focus: Genitals (masturbating) (sexually explored)
- Key Tasks/Experiences: Identifying with adult role models; coping with Oedipal crisis


MALES:
1. Oedipal complex (lusts Mom, wants to get rid of Dad)
2. have castration anxiety (Dad will cut off)
3. resolution via identification with Dad (wants to be like the guy who actually has Mom)


FEMALES:
1. Electra Complex (Jung--not Freud--called it this; wants to get rid of Mom since it's her fault she doesn't have a penis and because she lusts after Dad)
2. have penis envy
3. no clear way of resolution--therefore, women are developmentally inferior to men
LATENCY STAGE OF FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
- Approx. Age: 6-12
- Erotic Focus: None (sexually repressed)
- Key Tasks/Experiences: Expanding social contacts
GENITAL STAGE OF FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
- Approx. Age: Puberty onward
- Erotic Focus: Genitals (being sexually intimate)
- Key Tasks/Experiences: Establishing intimate relationships; contributing to society through working
ORAL-DEPENDENT PERSONALITY
a passive person who takes more than he gives
ORAL-AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY
a hostile vocal person who is also exploitative
ANAL-IMPULSIVE PERSONALITY
a disorderly, messy person (Oscar of "The Odd Couple")
ANAL-RETENTIVE PERSONALITY
a stingy, compulsive "neatnick" (Felix of "The Odd Couple")
PHALLIC PERSONALITY
a person who is vain, narcissistic, and exhibitionistic
MODERN PSYCHOLOGISTS & PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
- Unconscious
- Mental conflict
- Childhood
- Personality development in stages