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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Anesthesia is used to produce a controlled loss of sensation after a diagnostic/ surgical procedure. TRUE or FALSE.
False. It's used DURING not after the procedure.
What agents are used to depress the CNS, which in turn depresses the conscious, loss of responsiveness to sensory stimulation, or muscle relaxation?
Anesthetics
List the 4 types of anesthesia.
General, local, regional, & MAC.
What type of anesthesia is used for analgesia, relaxation, hypnosis, amnesia, & absent reflexes?
General anesthetics
No single drug can safely accomplish the general purposes of General anesthetics. TRUE or FALSE.
True
What is balanced anesthesia?
Combination of medications to produce general anesthesia.
What are the 2 main categories of General anesthetics?
Inhaled & injectable anesthetics
List the common drugs used to achieve balanced anesthesia.
The use of a variety of agents such as:
1. sedative-hypnotic
2. antianxiety
3. analgesic
4. antiemitic
5. anticholinergic
What are the 3 uses for Opioid analgesics?
1. Anesthesia induction
2. pain prevention
3. pain relief
What are the 5 Adjunctive Anesthetic agents used?
1. Opioid analgesics
2. Benzodiazepines
3. Anticholinergics
4. Sedative-hypnotics
5. Neuromuscular blocking agents
What are the 2 uses for Benzodiazepines?
Amnesia & anxiety (AA)
What are anticholinergics used for preoperatively?
To dry up excessive secretions.
What are the 2 uses for sedative-hypnotics?
Amnesia & sedation (AS)
What are neuromuscular blocking agents used for?
Muscle relaxation & allow reduced amounts of anesthetic agent.
List the drug prototype for Barbiturates in general anesthetic agents?
thiopental sodium (Pentothal)
What is the IV onset & duration of the drug prototype Pentothal?
IV onset is 1 minute and duration is 20-30 minutes.
What Barbiturate drug is Emergence Delirium one of the adverse effects?
thiopental sodium (Pentothal)
What is the drug prototype of the group "miscellaneous" IV general anesthetics?
ketamine (Ketalar)
What is the MOA of Ketalar?
It interrupts the brain pathways prior to producing somesthetic sensory blockade & depresses function in the RAS (reticular activating system) & limbic system.
What are Inhalation General Anesthetic agents used for?
To rapidly produce loss of consciousness & total analgesia.
In what 2 forms are Inhaled General Anesthetics supplied as?
Gases & volatile liquids
The potency of inhalation anesthetics is described by the _____ _____ _____?
Minimum alveolar concentration
What is minimum alveolar concentration?
The concentration of drug vapor in the alveoli that prevents a motor response in 50% of subjects when exposed to a painful stimulus.
What does a low value of minimum alveolar concentration indicate?
A very small amount of anesthetic is needed to immobilize the pt.
Inhalation anesthetics have low minimum alveolar concentration and therefore are very potent, with what exception?
Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide is a low-potency anesthetic with a high minimum alveolar concentration value. TRUE or FALSE
True
What are the 3 indications for General Anesthetics?
1. To produce unconsciousness
2. skeletal muscle relaxation
3. visceral smooth muscle relaxation for surgery
MYOCARDIAL DEPRESSION is an unusual side effect of General Anesthetics. TRUE or FALSE.
False. It is a COMMON side effect.
What are volatile liquid general anesthetic agents used for?
To induce & maintain deep anesthesia.
Name the drug prototype for volatile liquid general anesthetics?
isoflurane (Forane)
What is the MOA of isoflurane (Forane)?
Sensitize the heart (myocardium) to the action of NE & epinephrine; depresses the CNS (cardiovascular & pulmonary function).
What drug class causes a loss of sensation in limited areas of the body?
Local/ regional anesthetics
What is the advantage of local anesthesia?
Provides pain relief without causing CNS & respiratory system depression.
Name the 5 techniques used to deliver local/ regional anesthesia.
1. surface anesthesia
2. infiltration anesthesia
3. nerve block
4. epidural anesthesia
5. spinal anesthesia
What kind of local anesthetic involves applying a cream, lotion, ointment, spray or drop to traumatized skin to relieve pain?
Surface anesthesia
Which local anesthetic is injected to contact the nerve endings in the area & prevents them from transmitting nerve impulses to the brain?
Infiltration anesthesia
What local anesthetic is used in c-sections?
Spinal anesthesia
What is the drug prototype for local anesthetics?
lidocaine (Anestacon, Dilocaine, Xyolcaine, others)
Lidocaine is available in different strengths & concentrations with epinephrine. Why would it come with epinephrine?
Epinephrine reduces blood loss from minor surgery bc of its vasoconstrictive properties & reduces systemic absorption of lidocaine.
Adjunctive medications are those used to enhance anesthesia or to make the procedure safer & less unpleasant for pts. TRUE or FALSE.
True
List the 3 preoperative adjunctive agents used.
1. Benzodiazepines
2. Histamine (H2) receptor antagonist
3. Anticholinergic drugs
Why are anticholinergic drugs such as atropine administered prior to surgery?
To reduce salivary & airway secretions; it blocks bradycardia caused by some anesthetics.
What adjunctive agents are used for pain management?
1. Opioids
2. NSAIDs
3. Centrally acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist
What is the centrally acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist drug used in pain management?
clonidine (Catapres, Duraclon)
Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are used in surgery require artificial mechanical ventilation because?
They paralyze respiratory & skeletal muscles. The pt is unable to breathe.
What are antiemetic drugs used postoperatively?
Used for prophylaxis in high risk pts or for treatment.
List the 3 antiemetic drugs used postoperatively.
1. promethazine (Phenergan)
2. ondansteron (Zofran)
3. metoclopramide (Reglan)