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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 general types of anesthesia?
1) General
2) Regional
3) Local
What is the definition of general anesthesia?
Reversible loss of sensation to entire body with unconsciousness/ amnesia, muscle relaxation and analgesia
-Can be injectable or inhalation
What is the first stage of anesthesia?
Stage of voluntary movement
-Lasts from beginning of drug administration until loss of consciousness
What is the second stage of anesthesia?
Stage of involuntary movement and delerium
-Lasts from loss of consciousness to onset of regular breathing pattern
What is the third stage of anesthesia?
Stage of surgical anesthesia
-Characterized by unconsciousness, progressive depression of reflexes, muscle relaxation and presence of slow regular respiratory pattern
Stage 3 of anesthesia can be subdivided into four planes or into what three stages?
-Light (ocular movement)
-Medium (progressive intercostal paralysis)
-Deep (diaphragmatic breathing pattern)
What is the fourth stage of anesthesia?
Excessive depth of anesthesia with mydriasis, apnea and profound hypotension
-W/o intervention death soon ensues
The distinction b/w stages of anesthesia is affected by drug selection and _____.
Speed of administration
What is the definition of regional anesthesia?
Reversible loss of sensation to a portion of body due to blockade of large nerve or group of nerves
-Epidural/spinal anesthesia
-Brachial plexus block
What is the definition of local anesthesia?
Reversible loss of sensation to a more limited area of the body due to blockade of a single nerve or group of nerves
What is the definition of surgical anesthesia?
Reversible loss of sensation of sufficient intensity (analgesia, unconsciousness and muscle relaxation) to allow completion of surgical procedures
What is the definition of dissociative anesthesia?
Anesthesia produced by drugs (ketamine and telazol) that dissociate the thalamocrtic and limbic systems, producing a cataleptoid state, usually w/ muscle rigidity
What is balanced anesthesia?
Several drugs are used in combination to provide anesthesia
-Each drug provides a component-unconsciousness /amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation
-Premed + agent + supplement=1
Who administers schedule drugs?
The DEA
-One must register at fixed intervals in order to perscribe or purchase these drugs
-Must maintain log
-Must store securely
What schedule of drug is pentobarbital?
Schedule II
What is the definition of tranquilization?
State of reduced awareness and relaxation but still aware of surroundings
e.g. acepromazine
What is the definition of sedation?
State of CNS depression and reduced awareness of surroundings
What is the definition of analgesia?
Freedom from or absence of pain
-Opiods & NSAIDS
What is the definition of narcosis?
Drug induced state of deep sleep from which the animal may not be arousable
-Not equivalent to narcotic
What is the definition of an opiate/opiod?
Class of drugs derived from the opium poppy (morphine and codeine) or semi-synthetic (heroin, hydromorphone) or synthetic (fentanyl) wit hthe same effects
-Usually scheduled drugs
What schedule of drugs are useful in veterinary anesthesia?
Schedule II, III, IV
What is the definition of a narcotic?
An agent that causes decreased awareness to surroundings and stupor (usually refers to an opiate/ opiod)
What is the definition of pain?
Unpleasant sensory experience associated w/ actual or potential tissue damage or described in those terms
-Inability to communicate does not negate presence of pain
What is the definition of nociception?
The physiologic components of pain; transduction, transmission and modulation of neural signals generated in response to a noxious stimulus
-Does not include perception
What is the definition of nociceptor?
Specialized nerve ending (Receptor) capable of encoding mechanical, chemical, or thermal energy into electrical impulses
What is the definition of nociceptor threshold?
Minimal strength of stimulus that will cause a nociceptor to generate a nerve impulse
What is the definition of a reflex?
Involuntary, purposeful and orderly response to (a reflex arc)
What is the definition of analgesia?
Loss of sensitivity to pain
What is multimodal analgesia?
Use of multiple drugs with different mechanisms to produce optimal analgesia
Ex. opioid + NSAID
What is the definition of neuroleptanalgesia?
A combination of a neuroleptic agent (tranquilizer or sedative) with an analgesic agent (opiate/opioid) to produce heavy sedation and analgesia (e.g. acepromazine and morphine, midazolam and hydromorphone)
What is the definition of allodynea?
Pain caused by a stimulus that normally does not provoke pain
What is the definition of hyperalgesia?
Increased response to a stimulus that normally causes pain
-Occurs at the site of injury (primary) or in surrounding uninjured tissue (Secondary)
-Exaggerated response by nociceptors at lower threshold
What is the definition of hyperasthesia/ hyperesthetic?
Increased sensitivity/ response to a stimulus
What is the definition of hypoalgesia?
Decreased sensitivity to pain
What is the definition of neuralgia?
Pain in distribution of a nerve or nerves
What is the definition of acute pain?
Pain that follows bodily injury, disappears w/ healing, tends to be self limiting
What is the definition of chronic pain?
Pain that lasts several weeks to months beyond expected healing time
-Of non-neoplastic origin
What is the definition of cancer pain?
Pain that can be acute chronic or intermittent and is related to the disease or the treatment
What is the definition of pathologic pain?
Pain that has an exaggerated response beyond its protective usefulness
-often associated w/ tissue injury associated w/ surgery or trauma
What is the definition of physiologic pain?
Pain that acts as a protective mechanism that causes individual to associate it w/ tissue injury
-Associated w/ surgery or trauma
What is the definition of somatic pain?
Pain that originates from injury to bones, muscles, joints or skin
-Described as localized, constant, sharp, aching, or throbbing
What is the definition of visceral pain?
Pain due to stretching, distention or inflammation of viscera
-Described as deep, cramping, aching, or gnawing
-Not well localized
What is the definition of neuropathic pain?
Pain that originates from injury or involvement of the peripheral or central nervous system
-Described as burning or pulsing
-may be associated w/ motor, sensory or autonomic deficits
What is the definition of premptive analgesia?
Administration of an analgesic drug prior to painful stimulation to prevent sensitization of neurons
-Improves postoperative analgesia
What is the definition of wind-up?
Temporal summation of painful stimuli in the spinal cord
-mediated by C fibers
-Responsible for "second" pain
What is central sensitization?
An increase in excitability and responsiveness of nerve sin the spinal cord
What is the definition of peripheral sensitization?
An increase in excitability and responsiveness of peripheral nerve terminals