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53 Cards in this Set

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What are the three phases of healing?
Exudative phase, collagen phase, maturation phase.
What is the goal of the healing process?
To restore the injured tissue to its pre-would condidtion in a short time with a minimal loss of function.
What is the exudative phase of healing?
The passage of fluid and cells into tissues or cavities occurs & the initial inflammatory response occurs.
What are some inflammatory responses?
Redness, swelling, het, loss of function & pain.
What is the collagen phase of healing?
During the beginning of the phase there is not much strengh in the healing area, granulation tissue is made which consists of collagen & new formations of capillaries.
What is collagen?
The major protein that binds the cells & tissues together.
What is the maturation phase of the healing process?
When the wound is covered with epithelium - contraction occurs in this phase.
What are 9 factors which can affect the healing process?
Nutrition, steroids, tissue debris, tissue handling, blood supply, infection, bleeding, foreign materials & motion.
How can nutrition affect the healing process?
Protein deficiencies and anemias can retard the healing process.
How can steroids affect the healing process?
Corticosteroids can reduce infammation, but also delay healing.
How can tissue debris affect the healing process?
The tissue debris must be removed for healing to begin.
How can tissue handling affect the healing process?
Tissue must be kept moist. Tissue needs to be handled carefully with the proper instruments.
How can the blood supply affect the healing process?
Blood supply is essential for healing to occur. Avoid strangulating the blood supply with tight sutures & bandages or excessive inflammation.
How can infection affect the healing process?
It will delay wound healing.
How can bleeding affect the healing process?
It can help clean a wound, but pooled blood or blood clots are ideal for bacterial growth & infection.
How can foreign materials affect the healing process?
Hair, plant material, glass, etc. should be removed when cleaning a wound or they will remain a source of infection & draining tracts. Suture material should be absorbable or removed when indicated.
How can motion affect the healing process?
Excessive motion of the skin around a wound will slow healing.
What are 5 classifications of wounds?
Incision, contusion, laceration, puncture & abrasion.
What is an incision?
A clean cut with a sharp instrument.
What is a contusion?
A bruise or hematoma that is a result of a blow with a blunt object.
What is a laceration?
A cut caused by a jagged object (glass, barbed wire, etc.).
What is a puncture?
A small, circular skin wound associated with injury to deeper structures as would be seen with a bite or bullet wound.
What is an abrasion?
A scraping injury involving the skin.
What 5 factors need to be assessed when a patient has a wound?
Animals condition, type of damage, location, cirulation (blood flow) to the wound & how long the wound has been present.
What is the "Golden period"?
The first 8 hours after a wound is formed.
What What 5 factors can affect the golden period?
Animals age, function, temperament, home environment and the clients ability & willingness to care for the animal.
What are the 3 categories of wound management?
First intention healing, second intention healing, third intention healing.
What is first intention healing?
Immediate cleaning & suturing. Generally reserved for 'clean' wounds less than 8 hours old that are uncomplicated. Least amount of scarring.
What is second intention healing?
Healing through granulation. The most scarring.
What is third intention healing?
The wound begins to heal through granulation & then is sutured after healthy granulation tissue is present. An intermediate amount of scarring.
What are the 5 step for preparing a wound?
Restraint, cover the wound, clip the hair, clean the skin & lavage the wound.
What is done during the restraint part of wound prep?
It depends on the animal and the nature of the wound. Could by physical or chemical.
What is used to cover the wound during prep?
Use gauze soaked in sterile saline or water soluble jelly.
Where do you clip the hair during wound prep?
Clip around the wound & surrounding areas as you would for surgery.
How do you clean the skin for wound prep?
Same as surgery prep. Be careful not to get scrub or alcohol into the wound.
How do you lavage the wound when preping?
Remove the wound covering & flush the wound. Common solutions used: sterile saline, LRS or water. Use a 35cc syringe & a 18g needle.
What are the 3 layers of a bandage?
Primary, secondary, tertiary.
What does the primary layer of a bandage consist of?
It's the contact layer. Usually gauze, but it needs to be sterile, stable & conforming.
What does the secondary layer of a bandage consist of?
It's the absorbent layer, it collects & stores discharge. Usually cotton. Must be thick enough so there is no seepage. It also provides cushioning & protection.
What does the tertiary layer of a bandage consist of?
It's the protective layer. Usually vet wrap, elasktikon.
This is the outer covering that holds the other layers in place.
What are 10 functions of bandages?
Absorption, protection, antisepsis, pressure, immobilization, debridement, packing, comfort, information & aesthetics.
What's the absorption function of a bandage?
To remove exudate from wound surface.
What's the protection function of a bandage?
To prevent further trauma & contamination.
What's the antisepsis function of a bandage?
It may contain antibiotics or antiseptics.
What's the pressure function of a bandage?
It decreases "dead space" & reduces fluid accumulation; may also provide hemostasis.
What's the immobilization function of a bandage?
It decreases pain & rests the wound.
What's the debridement function of a bandage?
The adherent primary layer will debride the wound when it's removed.
What's the packing function of a bandage?
Deep wounds can be packed with gauze that may be soaked in antiseptic solution.
What's the comfort function of a bandage?
It provide immobilization & padding.
What's the information function of a bandage?
The condition of a bandage can provide information about the healing process & infection.
What's the aesthetics function of a bandage?
Open wounds are unappealing to look at & a bandage also protect the household environment from drainage.
When should you replace a bandage (visually)?
When it begins to smell, is wet, slips or is excessively bothers the animal.
Why do you leave the toes out on a bandage?
To check for any abnormalities. Cyanosis, swelling or coolness.