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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
back side
belly side
tail end
head end
where the appendage joins the body
farthest point from where the appendage joins the body
Temperature (98 – 101), pulse(30-40), respiration(6-16)
mucos membrane, should be pink in color and moist, not tacky
capillary refill time, normal is less than 2 seconds
Signs that dentistry needs to be done:
1. Drooling
2. Foul smell to breath
3. Swellings around face
4. Trouble with the bit
5. Head shaking
6. Poor perfomance
What is used in floating:
• Speculum
• Light
• Bucket
• Dose syringe
• Shoulder, dental ring, or halter
• Sedation
What is choke?
Esophageal obstruction
signs of choke:
 Saliva and feed from mouth and nose
 Cough
 Dysphagia
 Arched or extended neck
 Repeated attempts to swallow and retch
 May appear distressed, painful or depressed
 Acute or chronic
Where does choke happen:
 Usually close to larynx or at thoracic inlet
Treatment of choke:
 Sedation
 Smooth muscle relaxants
 Analgesics (painkillers)
 Lavage
 Oxytocin to relax striated muscle
 Intravenous fluid therapy
 Anaesthesia and surgery
Complications of choke:
 Aspiration pneumonia
 Esophageal inflammation, necrosis and stricture formation
 Esophageal diverticulum (stretched area of the esophagus)
Why does a horse get choke:
 Bolting food, unable to chew properly
What are gastric ulcers:
 Painful erosion in wall of stomach
Where do gastric ulcers occur:
 Non glandular portion of stomach
Who do gastric ulcers affect:
 Very common
 90% TBs in race training
 ~60% show horses, pleasure horses broodmares
Why do horses get gastric ulcers:
 Stress
 Intense training
 Intermittent feeding
 High grain diets
 Soluble CHO fermented, byproducts include volatile fatty acids, lactic acid and alcohol
Treatment of gastric ulcers:
 H-2 receptor antagonists
 Antacids
 Sucralfate
 Omeprazole,
Sings of gastric ulcers:
 Reduced appetite
 Weight loss/ poor body condition
 Low-grade or recurrent colic
 Loose feces
 Attitude change
 May be no clinical signs
Small intestine dysfunction:
 Fluid absorption is reduced
 Increased fluids in small intestine
→→ Necrosis
→→ Endotoxin absorption
 Reduced circulating blood volume
 Reduced blood supply to gut
Simple Obstruction Why:
 Feed impaction (or foreign material)
 South Western USA bermuda grass ↑ fibre in fall
 Ascarid impaction
 Pedunculated lipoma
Simple Obstruction Diagnosis:
 TPR, MM and CRT, auscultation
 Nasogastric tube
 Net reflux in stomach up to 0.3L/100kg/hr in complete obstruction
 Rectal exam
 Abdominal ultrasound
 Abdominocentesis
Simple Obstruction Treatment:
 Medical/conservative
 Fluid therapy + electrolytes
 Analgesics e.g NSAID
 Mineral oil?
 Laminitis prevention
 Surgery
What is Colic:
 Clinical sign of pain
Treatment of colic:
 NSAIDS (anti-inflammatory, banamine)
 Sedatives
 Fecal softeners
 IV fluids
 Sedation
 surgery
Prevention of colic:
 Establish a set daily routine- including feeding and exercise schedule-and stick to
 Feed a high quality diet comprised primarily of roughage.
 Avoid feeding excessive grain and energy-dense supplements.
 At least half the horse’s energy requirement should be supplied through hay or forage
 Divide daily concentrate rations (hay free-choice)
 Set up a regular parasite control program
 Provide exercise and/or turnout on a daily basis
 Provide fresh, clean water at all times.
 Avoid putting feed on the ground, esp. in sandy soils.
 Make dietary and other management changes as gradually as possible.
 Reduce stress.
 Maintain accurate records of management, feeding practices, and health
What should happen during a colic examination:
 Obtain a full history
 Do a thorough physical exam
 Pass a stomach tube
 May
 perform a rectal exam
 abdominocentesis
 blood sample
 refer the horse
Where do impactions occur:
 Cecum
 Transverse colon (junction with right dorsal colon)
 Pelvic flexure
Why do impactions occur:
 Dehydration
 Coarse/high fibre feed
 Poor dentition
 Cold weather – due to dehydration,
Signs of impactions:
 Colic!
 Mild to moderate pain
 Dry, hard feces
 Progressive anorexia
 Dehydration
Treatment of impactions:
 Fluids, fluids and more fluids
 intravenously, nasal tube, add electrolytes
 Maybe:
 Mineral oil
 Magnesium sulphate or similar
 Surgery
Diarrhea: what:
 Fecal material with ↑ water content
Diarrhea: Why:
 Many diseases
Diarrhea: treatment:
 Fluids
 Nutrition
 Low dose Banamine (flunixin) for antiendotoxin effects
 Antibiotics?
 Isolation?
Grain overload:
 Proliferation of lactic acid producing bacteria(bacteria will multiply if a large amount of grain is in the hind gut. Usually there are only a few bacteria that breakdown grain.)
 Change pH
 Death of gram negative bacteria
 Endotoxin in cell wall
 Any disruption in mucosa allows endotoxin to be absorbed
Endotoximia: why:
 Any disruption of mucosa!
Endotoximia: signs:
 Toxic line and altered color of mm
 Pyrexia
 Colic/diarrhea
 Dehydration/anorexia
 Laminitis
Endotoximia: tx:
 Antibiotics
 Fluids
 Maybe
 DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide (scavenge oxygen radicals)
Respiratory disease: Importance:
 Athletic horses
 Huge lungs, large volumes of air moved
 Major economic loss
 Environment and management important
 Air quality
 Ammonia
 Dust and molds
Respiratory disease: Clinical signs:
 Changes in character of respiration
 Increased effort, rate, noise
 Flared nostrils, extended neck
 Heave line, abducted elbows
 Nasal discharge
 Cough
 Exercise intolerance
 Epistaxis bleeding from nostrils
Respiratory disease: Causes:
 Viral
 Bacterial
 Fungal
 Parasitic
 Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) (heaves)
 Inflammatory airway disease
 Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage
Caused by:Streptococcus equi
 Bacterial shed in nasal discharges
 Transmission direct or via fomites
 Clinical signs
 Progressive swelling and tenderness of lymph nodes in head
 may have difficulty swallowing
 abscess in lymph nodes, which eventually burst
Equine influenza:
 Most highly contagious equine respiratory pathogens
 Airborne/aerosol route and direct
Clinical signs (unvaccinated)
 Pyrexia (up to 40°C / 104°F)
 Harsh dry cough
 Serous then mucopurulent nasal discharge
 Marked depression
 Shed for up to 10 days
 Diagnosed: Nasopharangeal swabs
EHV ¼:
 Main virus to cause viral respiratory disease
 Can result in abortion storms in mares
 Rarely neurologic disease (paralysis)
 Up to 75% horses latently infected
 Virus recrudesces when animal under stress
recurent airway obstruction
 Middle aged, and older susceptible for life, can be managed in remission
 Recurrent episodes
 Clinical signs at rest
 Cough, incr. RR
 Mucus, neutrophils in tracheal mucus
(inflammatory airway disease)
 Any age
 Vague clinical signs, often no clinical signs at rest
 Poor performance, cough, and nasal discharge
 Tracheal mucus
 Neutrophils in tracheal mucus
Pleuropneumonia(ex. Shipping fever)
 Effects individuals, not groups, stress can cause it