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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dorsal
back side
ventral
belly side
itis
inflammation
oma
tumor
caudal
tail end
cranial
head end
proximal
where the appendage joins the body
distal
farthest point from where the appendage joins the body
TPR:
Temperature (98 – 101), pulse(30-40), respiration(6-16)
MM:
mucos membrane, should be pink in color and moist, not tacky
CPT :
capillary refill time, normal is less than 2 seconds
Signs that dentistry needs to be done:
Bucking
1. Drooling
2. Foul smell to breath
3. Swellings around face
4. Trouble with the bit
5. Head shaking
6. Poor perfomance
What is used in floating:
• Speculum
• Light
• Bucket
• Dose syringe
• Shoulder, dental ring, or halter
• Sedation
What is choke?
Esophageal obstruction
signs of choke:
 Saliva and feed from mouth and nose
 Cough
 Dysphagia
 Arched or extended neck
 Repeated attempts to swallow and retch
 May appear distressed, painful or depressed
 Acute or chronic
Where does choke happen:
 Usually close to larynx or at thoracic inlet
Treatment of choke:
 Sedation
 Smooth muscle relaxants
 Analgesics (painkillers)
 Lavage
 Oxytocin to relax striated muscle
 Intravenous fluid therapy
 Anaesthesia and surgery
Complications of choke:
 Aspiration pneumonia
 Esophageal inflammation, necrosis and stricture formation
 Esophageal diverticulum (stretched area of the esophagus)
Why does a horse get choke:
 Bolting food, unable to chew properly
What are gastric ulcers:
 Painful erosion in wall of stomach
Where do gastric ulcers occur:
 Non glandular portion of stomach
Who do gastric ulcers affect:
 Very common
 90% TBs in race training
 ~60% show horses, pleasure horses broodmares
Why do horses get gastric ulcers:
 Stress
 Intense training
 Intermittent feeding
 High grain diets
 Soluble CHO fermented, byproducts include volatile fatty acids, lactic acid and alcohol
Treatment of gastric ulcers:
 H-2 receptor antagonists
 Antacids
 Sucralfate
 Omeprazole,
Sings of gastric ulcers:
 Reduced appetite
 Weight loss/ poor body condition
 Low-grade or recurrent colic
 Loose feces
 Attitude change
 May be no clinical signs
Small intestine dysfunction:
 Fluid absorption is reduced
 Increased fluids in small intestine
→→Distension
→→ Necrosis
→→ Endotoxin absorption
 Reduced circulating blood volume
 Reduced blood supply to gut
Simple Obstruction Why:
 Feed impaction (or foreign material)
 South Western USA bermuda grass ↑ fibre in fall
 Ascarid impaction
 Pedunculated lipoma
Simple Obstruction Diagnosis:
 TPR, MM and CRT, auscultation
 Nasogastric tube
 Net reflux in stomach up to 0.3L/100kg/hr in complete obstruction
 Rectal exam
 Abdominal ultrasound
 Abdominocentesis
Simple Obstruction Treatment:
 Medical/conservative
 Fluid therapy + electrolytes
 Analgesics e.g NSAID
 Mineral oil?
 Laminitis prevention
 Surgery
What is Colic:
 Clinical sign of pain
Treatment of colic:
 NSAIDS (anti-inflammatory, banamine)
 Sedatives
 Fecal softeners
 IV fluids
 Sedation
 surgery
Prevention of colic:
 Establish a set daily routine- including feeding and exercise schedule-and stick to
 Feed a high quality diet comprised primarily of roughage.
 Avoid feeding excessive grain and energy-dense supplements.
 At least half the horse’s energy requirement should be supplied through hay or forage
 Divide daily concentrate rations (hay free-choice)
 Set up a regular parasite control program
 Provide exercise and/or turnout on a daily basis
 Provide fresh, clean water at all times.
 Avoid putting feed on the ground, esp. in sandy soils.
 Make dietary and other management changes as gradually as possible.
 Reduce stress.
 Maintain accurate records of management, feeding practices, and health
What should happen during a colic examination:
 Obtain a full history
 Do a thorough physical exam
 Pass a stomach tube
 May
 perform a rectal exam
 abdominocentesis
 blood sample
 refer the horse
Where do impactions occur:
 Cecum
 Transverse colon (junction with right dorsal colon)
 Pelvic flexure
Why do impactions occur:
 Dehydration
 Coarse/high fibre feed
 Poor dentition
 Cold weather – due to dehydration,
Signs of impactions:
 Colic!
 Mild to moderate pain
 Dry, hard feces
 Progressive anorexia
 Dehydration
Treatment of impactions:
 Fluids, fluids and more fluids
 intravenously, nasal tube, add electrolytes
 Maybe:
 Mineral oil
 Magnesium sulphate or similar
 Surgery
Diarrhea: what:
 Fecal material with ↑ water content
Diarrhea: Why:
 Many diseases
Diarrhea: treatment:
 Fluids
 Nutrition
 NSAIDs
 Low dose Banamine (flunixin) for antiendotoxin effects
 Antibiotics?
 Isolation?
Grain overload:
 Proliferation of lactic acid producing bacteria(bacteria will multiply if a large amount of grain is in the hind gut. Usually there are only a few bacteria that breakdown grain.)
 Change pH
 Death of gram negative bacteria
 Endotoxin in cell wall
 Any disruption in mucosa allows endotoxin to be absorbed
Endotoximia: why:
 Any disruption of mucosa!
Endotoximia: signs:
 Toxic line and altered color of mm
 Pyrexia
 Colic/diarrhea
 Dehydration/anorexia
 Laminitis
Endotoximia: tx:
 Antibiotics
 Fluids
 NSAIDS
 Maybe
 DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide (scavenge oxygen radicals)
Respiratory disease: Importance:
 Athletic horses
 Huge lungs, large volumes of air moved
 Major economic loss
 Environment and management important
 Air quality
 Ammonia
 Dust and molds
Respiratory disease: Clinical signs:
 Changes in character of respiration
 Increased effort, rate, noise
 Flared nostrils, extended neck
 Heave line, abducted elbows
 Nasal discharge
 Cough
 Exercise intolerance
 Epistaxis bleeding from nostrils
Respiratory disease: Causes:
Infectious
 Viral
 Bacterial
 Fungal
 Parasitic
Non-infectious
 Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) (heaves)
 Inflammatory airway disease
 Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage
Strangles:
Caused by:Streptococcus equi
 Bacterial shed in nasal discharges
 Transmission direct or via fomites
 Clinical signs
 Progressive swelling and tenderness of lymph nodes in head
 may have difficulty swallowing
 abscess in lymph nodes, which eventually burst
Equine influenza:
 Most highly contagious equine respiratory pathogens
 Airborne/aerosol route and direct
Clinical signs (unvaccinated)
 Pyrexia (up to 40°C / 104°F)
 Harsh dry cough
 Serous then mucopurulent nasal discharge
 Marked depression
 Shed for up to 10 days
 Diagnosed: Nasopharangeal swabs
EHV ¼:
 Main virus to cause viral respiratory disease
 Can result in abortion storms in mares
 Rarely neurologic disease (paralysis)
 Up to 75% horses latently infected
 Virus recrudesces when animal under stress
RAO
recurent airway obstruction
 Middle aged, and older susceptible for life, can be managed in remission
 Recurrent episodes
 Clinical signs at rest
 Cough, incr. RR
 Mucus, neutrophils in tracheal mucus
IAD
(inflammatory airway disease)
 Any age
 Vague clinical signs, often no clinical signs at rest
 Poor performance, cough, and nasal discharge
 Tracheal mucus
 Neutrophils in tracheal mucus
Pleuropneumonia(ex. Shipping fever)
 Effects individuals, not groups, stress can cause it