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56 Cards in this Set

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Function of small intestine:
Primary site of digestion and absorption
for
–Starch and simple sugars
–Triglycerides and fatty acids
–Proteins and amino acids
–Several minerals and vitamins
Function of Hindgut:
microbial fermentation
Rates of passage of different parts of the tract
in stomach
in small intestine
in hind gut
12 hr. in stomach
8 hrs in small intestine
48 hrs in hind gut
Calculating maximum and minimum DM intake
DM: 1.5 – 3.0% BW
Calculating amount of grain/meal
– 3 g starch/kg BW / meal
• ? Lbs
–Ex: 500 kgBW x 3g = 1,500 g
–Most grain is ~ 70% starch
–1,500 g / 0.7 = 2,143 g grain
–2,143 g grain = 2.1 kg grain
–2.1 kg grain x 2.2 lbs/kg = 4.62 lbs
Calculating
water intake
Maintenance conditions = 5 L / 100kg BW
• Work = 12 to 15 L / 100 kg BW
What are gastric ulcers, and where are they located?
Gastric ulcers are painful lesions in the glandular region of the stomach
risk factors for gastric ulcers (known) and explain HOW they might cause ulcers
Exercise: increased abdominal pressure and decreased
stomach volume. The authors speculated that stomach contractions allowed
acid from the glandular mucosa to reflux into
the nonglandular mucosa, leading to acid injury.
Feeding type (meal vs. continuous)
Meal: gastric pH drops rapidly
and the nonglandular mucosa is exposed to an acid
environment.
Continuous: there is a continuous
flow of saliva and ingesta that buffers stomach acid,
with stomach pH > 4 for a large portion of the day.
What is Colic? How can it be caused (know details) How can we prevent these problems?
What is Laminitis? How, specifically can it be caused (nutritionally)?
Failure of attachment between “dermo-epidermal junction"
How horses prefer to eat; what factors influence feed intake and in what direction
(e.g., increase/decrease)
Horses prefer to eat small amounts all day long.
Metabolic Factors:
Temperature: feed take increases when it takes more energy to keep the temperature at the same level.
Digestive system
factors
– Physical fill
– Hormones
•Cholecystokinin
–Small int.
• Ghrelin
–Stomach
• Other factors
– Sensory factors
• Taste, sight, smell and texture
– Physiological state
– Disease
• Pain
• Fever
• GI obstruction
• Mouth
– Nutrient concentration?
How is feed intake predicted? What is the range of normal feed intake, and what
are reasonable feed intakes for different physiological states (e.g. maintenance,
gestation, work etc…).
–Based on DM as a % of BW
• 1.5 to 3% BW DM
– Maint.,Stallions, Gestation, Light work
• 2% BW DM
– Lactation, Growing horse, mod. & intense
exercise
• 2.5% BW DM
Be able to convert between dry matter and as-fed feed intake (and visa-versa).
Converting between DM and as-fed (AF)
• Ex:
–27.5 lbs DM
–How many lbs hay containing 90%
DM?
»Lbs DM
Be familiar with predicting dry matter intake on pasture
Pasture?
– DM intake
• 0.08 to 0.16 kgDM / 100 kgBW / hr
• Max time spent grazing during a 24 hr period is 14
to 16 hr
– Ex:
• 500 kg horse
• Grazes 8 hr
• How many kg DM intake?
• 0.12 kgDM / 100 kgBW/ hr x 5 x 8 hr = 4.8 kgDM
Be familiar with things that horses eat that they should not: wood chewing, soil
eating; Be aware of why they do these things and why it may be a problem (also
how to solve the problems)
• Soil ingestion
• Coprophagy
• Wood Chewing
• Cribbing
• Tail Chewing
Microbial digestion; reasons that the hindgut is an ideal area for microbial
Digestion
Long retention time
Neutralization of acid end products: low pH kills fiber digesting microbes
Fluid environment contributing to dilution
of end products
• Over a 24 h period a volume ~ equal
to the horse’s extracellular volume is
secreted into the gut.
Continuous removal of end products
Products of microbial digestion that are useful to the horse
useful products:
volatile fatty acids: used for energy
Protein and Amino Acids?
B-vitamins & Vit. K
Function of Vitamin K?
not dietary essential for horse - produced by
bacteria in intestine or ingested in plant
form
function of Vitamin E?
Function: protect cell membranes and other
lipids from damage due to reactive oxygen
species that would cause lipid oxidation of
cell membranes
Vitamin D
Function:
Ca absorption and bone integrity
Vitamin A
Functions:
vision, night vision, cell
differentiation; immunity
know requirements of Ca and P for the 500 kg horse at
maintenance:
20 g Ca 14 g P
Selenium Function
Copper Function
Zinc Function
Iron Function
Iodine Function
Sodium and Chloride Function:
Potassium Function:
Important for acid/base balance
Magnesium Function:
Essential for bones, teeth, and activator of many
enzymes
Phosphorous Function:
is required for many energy transfer reactions associated
with ADP and ATP.
Calcium:
Functions:
- Major component of bone and teeth - important
formation and maintenance of both; approx. 99%
total body Ca is contained in skeleton FUNCTION?
- milk production
- blood clotting
- contraction of muscle
- nerve transmission / regulation of heart beat
Water quality? TDS and what it is; how much TDS will be the safe upper
limit for horses; how much will cause diarrhea or be refused?
TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) = Sum of the concentrations of all substances dissolved in water
TDS 0-4000 ppm may cause no adverse effects; 4,000 -6,000 ppm may lower intake; and
water with greater than 6000 ppm may affect health and productivity and should be
avoided.
10) Water deficiency signs; water deficiency and toxicity – how are these caused?
How can they be prevented?
Signs: performance reduction, weight loss, decreased food intake
Toxicity- This only occurs if horses are deprived of water and then given a large amount
Don’t give ad-lib water to hot horses: can cause colic
Prevention - Water deficiency causes colic – monitor water intake
Check tanks and break ice - make sure tank heaters aren’t shorting out
Some horses are sensitive to cold water- MONITOR WATER INTAKE
9) What are factors that influence water intake in the horse? How do they
influence and how much do they influence water intake?
Increased Environmental Temperature - Change from 55 F to 70 F may increase water intake by 15-20%
In cold temperatures, water intake may decrease, especially if water is cold or icy (management!)
Increased Activity - Work may increase water intake by 1.6 to 4 times
Hot climate - IN SWEAT: loss of 2 to 2.5 L/100 kgBW/hr (12.5 L or 3.3 gal /hr)
Lactation may increase water intake by 37- 74% over maintenance
Increased Food Intake - As food intake increases, water intake will increase 1-2 quarts/lb dry matter consumed (20 lb hay = 4.5-9 gallons/day) (30 lb hay = 7.5-15 gallons/day)
8) How is water taken in by the horse? Drinking water; metabolic water; feed
water;
DRINKING WATER - 5 l/100kg body wt/day = 25 l or 6.6 gals/500 kg/d (maintenance)
Metabolic water - Small 0.68 L/100 kgBW/d
Feed - Hay contains 10 to 15% water
Pasture can contain up to 80% water (can make a significant difference)
7) Water; what percentage of the total body is water? How much is intracellular
versus extracellular?
Total body water = 62 to 68% of body mass in adult horses
Intracellular fluid - 36 to 46% of body mass
Extracellular fluid - 21 to 25% of body mass
6) Protein allergies?
There may be some allergies - possibly to proteins in feeds - also possibly to other things
“Urticaria”, wheals, “sweet feed bumps”, protein bumps
5) What can occur with the rare occasion of protein toxicity in horses? Why?
Acidosis due to NH3 !
ingestion of urea can be toxic nervous system damage
4) Urea or NPN – which species can use it; is it normally a problem for horses?
Urea is a compound containing nitrogen in a non-protein form
Urea is used in ruminant diets to supply nitrogen to bacteria in an economical form
Urea is readily absorbed in the small intestine by the horse, therefore not available to hindgut microbes
There is no practical reason to feed it to horses
Amounts present in cow and sheep diets are usually not harmful BUT: OVERINGESTION may be toxic to horses!
3) What are the signs of deficiency of protein?
2) During what phase of protein biosynthesis are specific amino acids used?
ATP is also important for amino acids to be incorporated into proteins.
translation
1) Why are specific amino acids required for horses?
Amino acids are required for body functions:
muscle, bone, enzymes, hormones, hooves, hair
4) Know the toxicity levels of specific minerals that are likely to be toxic
Selenium: 2ppm
Copper: 800 ppm
Iodine: 5mg/kg BW
2ppm
4) Know the toxicity levels of specific minerals that are likely to be toxic
Copper:
800 ppm
4) Know the toxicity levels of specific minerals that are likely to be toxic
Iodine:
5mg/kg BW
diseases caused by
mineral DEFICIENCIES and problems with TOXICITIES:
CA-
Miller’s Disease
Disease: P-
Miller’s Diesease
Disease:Mg –
glazed eyes
Disease:K –
HYPP horses need low K diets,
Diease: Na and Cl-
def. uncoordinated movements
Diease: I –
goiter
Dieseas: Fe –
anemia
Disease: ZN –
poor growth rate
Dieseas: Se –
white muscle disease
Dieseas: Cu –
skeletal disorder