Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/43

Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the different RNA polymerases I, II and III?
I,II,II = R.M.T
(rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA)
Name the stop codons?
UGA = U Go Away
UAA = U Are Away
UAG = U Are Gone
What are the functions of the Golgi apparatus?
Su.Pro.Dis.N.O.Man. !

Sulfation of sugars in proteoglycans and tyrosine
Proteoglycan assembly
Distribution center of proteins and lipids
N-oligosacc. modification on Asn
O-oligosacc. addition to serine and threonine
Mannose-6-Phophate addition to lysosomal proteins
Collagen types?
B.e C.ool R.ead B.ooks

Bone Cartilage Reticulin Basement membrane

Type X - epiphyseal plate
What is S-adenosylmethionine?
SAM the methyl donor man
(SAM regeneration is dependent on B12)
The TCA cycle intermediates, starting from Citrate....?
C.an I. K.eep S.elling S.ex F.or M.oney O.fficer?

Citrate
Isocitrate
(alpha)-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malae
Oxaloacetate
Name the enzymes responsible for gluconeogenesis?
P.athway P.roduces F.resh G.lucose

Pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondria, the rest are cytosolic)
PEP carboxykinase
Fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase
Glucose-6-phosphatase
G6PD deficiency?
5H's - .
HMP shunt enzyme deficiency
Hurts RBCs by exposing them to oxidation, which normally is prevented by NADPH
Hemoglobin is altered, precipitates
Heinz bodies form
Hemolytic anemia results
Name the essential amino acids?
P.v.t. T.I.M. H.A.L.L.

Phe
Val
Thr
Typ
Ile
Met
His
Arg
Leu
Lys
Name the components (intermediates and enzymes) of the urea cycle
O.rdinarily, C.areless C.rappers A.re A.lso F.rivolous A.bout U.rination

Ornithine
Carbamoyl phosphate
Citrulline
Aspartate
Argininosuccinate
Fumarate
Arginine
Urination
Cystinuria is caused by a defect of...?
Renal tubular amino acid transporter for C.O.L.A.

Cystine
Ornithine
Lysine
Arginine
Maple Syrup Urine disease?
Blocked degradation of branched amino acids (Ile, Val, Leu)
I. L.ove V.ermont Maple Syrup
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome?
L.N.S. = Lacks Nucleotide Salvage (purine)
What does the liver do generally during the fasting state?
"In the Phasting state, Phosphorylate."
Which tissues don't need insulin for glucose uptake?
BRICK L:

Brain
RBCs
Intestine
Cornea
Kidney
Liver
What are the anabolic affects of insulin?
Gluck Sometimes Tries to Glide Professionally

Increased:
Glucose transport
Sodium retention by kidneys
Triglyceride snythesis and storage
Glycogen synthesis and storage
Protein synthesis by the muscles
Pompe's?
"Pompe's trashes the Pump"
(heart, liver, and muscle)
Glycogen storage disease
Name the glycogen storage diseases?
V.ery P.oor C.arbohydrate M.etabolism

Von Gierke's
Pompe's
Cori's
McArdle's
Niemann-Pick?
"NO MAN PICKS his nose with his SHPINGER" (shpingomyelinase)
Tay Sachs?
Tay SaX laX heXosaminidase
Hunter's?
"HUNTERS aim for the X" (X recessive
What are the major apolipoproteins and what do they do?
A-1 Activates LCAT
B-100 Binds to LDL receptor
C-II Cofactor for lipoprotein lipase
E - mEdiates Extra (remnant) uptake
Symptoms of porphyrias?
5P's -
Painful abdomen
Pink urine
Polyneuropathy
Psychological disturbances
Precipitated by drugs
How to treat methemoglobinemia?
"Treat toxic levels of METHemoglobin with METHylene blue"
Imprinting: Angelman's and Prader-Willi syndrome?
AngelMAN's and P.rader-Willi (P.aternal)
Duchenne's - the molecular problem?
Deleted dystrophin
Trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases?
"Try hunting for my fried eggs."

Try - trinucleotide
Hunting.ton's disease
My.otonic dystrophy
Fried.reich's ataxia
Eggs (Fragile X syndrome)
Fragile X syndrome?
Xtra-large testes, jaw, ears
Edward's syndrome: what causes it?
Election age = 18
T.risomy 18
Patau's syndrome: what causes it?
Trisomy 13
P.uberty = 13
Cri-du-chat?
CRI D.U. C.H.A.T

Dumb - mental retardation
Underdeveloped brain - microcephaly
Cardiac abnormalities
Hypertelorism
"Asian eyes" - epicanthal folds
Terminal deletion - of 5p
22q11 syndromes
CATCH 22
Cleft palate
Abnormal facies
Thymic aplasia --> T cell deficiency
Cardiac defects
Hypocalcemia secondary to parathyroid aplasia
Vitamin A is aka?
Retinol (think RetinA)
Beriberi?
Ber1Ber1 - Vitamin B1 deficiency
Wernicke-Korsakoff?
Were you drinking
Vitamin B2... aka? Deficiency causes?
I C.an S.ense C.razy F.lavor

FAD and FMN are derived from RiboFlavin

Cheilosis
Stomatitis (angular)
Corneal vascularization
Vitamin B3?
"B.e Ni.ce, or you'll get Pellagra"

3D's -
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Dreadful tongue (beefy glossitis)
Biotin?
AVIDIN in egg whites
AVIDly binds biotin
Vitamin E
"E is for Erythrocytes"
Vitamin K
"K for Koagulation"
Kwashiorkor?
Protein-deficient MEAL:

Malabsorption
Edema
Anemia
Liver (fatty)
G protein linked 2nd messengers via phospholipase C?
H.A.V. 1 M & M
H1 a1 V1 M1 M3
G protein linked 2nd messengers via Adenylyl cyclase?
MAD 2s
M2 a2 D2 (via Gi)
[the others in this group operate via Gs]