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6 Cards in this Set

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Metrodorus of Lampsacus (5th c. B.C.E.)
Neither Hera nor Athena nor Zeus are the things which those who consecrate temples and walls to them consider them to be, but they are manifestations of nature and arrangements of the elementsŠ Agamemnon is air, Achilles is the sun, Helen is the earth and Paris the air, Hector is the moon. But among the gods, Demeter is the liver, Dionysus is the spleen, and Apollo the bile.
Xenophanes (6th c. B.C.E.)
Mortals consider that the gods are born, and that they have clothes and speech and bodies like their own. The Ethiopians say that their gods are snub-nosed and black, the Thracians that theirs have light blue eyes and red hair. But if cattle and horses or lions had hands or were able to draw, horses would draw the forms of their gods like horses, cattle like cattle.
Anonymous ancient manuscript commentator (date unknown)
Among some people, these things are not permitted, on account of the display of indecency.
Plato (c. 429 - 347 B.C.E.)
Such utterances are both impious and falseŠ They are furthermore harmful to those that hear them. For every man will be very lenient with his own misdeeds if he is convinced that such are and were the actions of [the gods]Š We must constrain the poets to deny that these are [the gods¹] deeds.
Aristarchus (216 - 144 B.C.E.)
Aristarchus thought that readers ought to take things told by the poet as more like legends, according to poetic license, and not bother themselves about what is outside the things told by the poet.
Euhemerus (c. 300 B.C.E.)
[Not a direct quote, just a summary of his idea] Euhemerus thought that the gods in the myths were just human beings whose stories have been told and retold, until, through exaggeration, become literally "immortalized."