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125 Cards in this Set

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Petrolana 1959
A humanoid skull recovered - a HS Sapein. Bough to the cave site by scavengers
Francthi Cave (Peleoponnese)
Stratified human occupation since 2200BCE
Seasonal Occupation - travelling clan
projectile weapons, flint tool, human bones
Kleithi Cave
Summer settlement of 15-20 people hunting antelope
Had to adapt to harsh conditions
7000-5000BCE settlement pattern change
What 4 changes caused Greece to change into a place with permanent settlements
Metallurgy, Use of fortification, monumental architecture and agricultural innovations
Palace of Minos
Uncovered in 1900 by Arthur Evans on Crete. 1000+ rooms, depictions of bulls, throne room,
Gournia
Site on Crete excavate by Harriet Boyd. discovered gournes, labrys, marines pottery, small tablets, bottomless cones, Minoan snake goddess
Crete
Island inhabited by the 'Minoans'. Creation story: Zeus + Europa
Gournes
Large round stones with basins on top found in Gournia
Labrys
A double axe, symbol of the bull. recovered in both useful and ornamental forms in Gournia and Knossos.
Marine Pottery
Pottery recovered from Gournia with marine themes on them.
1450BCE
Prolific civilization in Crete come to an abrupt halt.
Minoan Twilight
1450-1000BCE. The civilization continued but was not as opulant or prosperous. Knossos endured, Gournia did not
Excavation at Thera/Santorini in 1886
Destroyed by a volcanic eruption. No human remains found. Similar to civilizations on Crete
Houses on Thera
Very opulent, up to 3 stories. Similar to crete - shared walls and frescos
Religion on Thera
Polytheistic and female goddess-based - this suggests gender equality or even matriarchy
Theater Zones
In the 4 minoan palace centers an L shaped zone for ~500 individuals. Performance space for bull leaping?
Grand Stand Fresco
A fresco showing a theatre zone, but can only see the audience
Minoan Art
Had religious and political function but seemed to used as art for arts sake
Sypridon Marintos
Archaeologist that excavated Thera and proposed volcanic eruption theory
What is the myth of atlantis according to Plato
Atlantian were a powerful people who ruled the sea and worshipped bulls. They were subjected to divine retribution because of their hubris. Atlantis sank and the hills of Athens washed away.
Europa
Raped by Zeus and then settles with him on Crete. Has 3 children with him, the most notable: Minos.
Minos
Son of Zeus and ruler of Crete who asks Posedion for a sign that he should be king. Married to Pasophae.
Daidalos
Inventor on crete who builds a cow contraption and labyrinth for King Minos.
Pasophae
Wife of Minos. Cursed by Posedion to mate with a bull. Gives birth to the Minotaur
Minotaur
A half bull, half human male monster. Has a hunger for human flesh and is imprisoned in the labyrinth built by Daidalos until he is killed.
How did metallurgy in early Greece help develop civilization?
bronze dagger, ornaments and jewelry suggest trade and luxury item. By 2000BCE smithing was used to refine weapons - could kill more efficiently
How did use of fortification help develop Greek civilization?
Fortification walls suggest permanent settlement/protection and implies raids - class of people become evident
Tzoungiza Ox
A terracotta figurine of an ox with a yoke around its neck - earliest evidence of plow animals in the Aegean
Agricultural Innovations
Animals for cultivation of property - Implies renewable animal products.
Heinrich Schliemann
Excavated Mycenae
Mask of Agamemnon
~1500BC (Pre-Trojan War)
2000BC Mainland Greece
Invasion by pre-Greek people
spoke proto-greek
1500BC Mainland Greece
Beginning of urban centers and cultural creativity
Carl Blegen
Excavated at Pylos
Nestors Palace
~1500BC
Tholos Tomb
Mycenaean Tomb
Tholos = beehive
Megaron
'the big place'
Mycenaean Palaces. 3 part division
Cyclopean Mansonry
Big stone blocks
Mycenaean period
ex. Lions gate at Mycenae
Mycenaean Triad
Grape, Grain and Olives
Government Structure of Mycenaean centres
Monarchy
Wanax
Linear B for 'King' - war lord
Wanakteros
'Staff of the Wanax' in Linear B
seen on the bottom of Mycenaean stirrup jars
Lawagetas
'People leader' in Linear B
2nd most frequent word
Qasirue
'King' - manager/mayor
in charge of small outying towns
Geronsia
Counsil of elders who advise rule
Linear B
The Great Karnak Inscription
made by Mernempta in 1208BC about how the 'sea peoples' sacked the acheans, sicily, sardina,danaoi and the Philistines
Mycenaean Twilight/darkage
1200-1000BC
The 3 Epic Cycles
Theban, Herculean and Trojan
Epikos
something that is wordy
Kameisthi
'for the most beautiful'
Carved on an apply by Eris (Strife) at Thetis and Pelus wedding
Xenia
Good hospitality/conduct
guest-host relationship
Milman Parry
Noticed that illiterate yugoslavian poets composed lengthy poems in a similar way to which the Homeric Epics were composed
Wild Papyri
texts on the homeric epics from greco-roman egypt that don't fit with the other versions of the narrative
Sing of the Rage
Opening lines of the Iliad
wrt. Achilles
Aristeia
Excellence (in Homeric epics wrt. war)
Geras
War prizes (anything movable)
Time`
Glory
attained by accumulating war prizes
Kleos and Kleos aphthiton
Reputation
attained by achieving glory
indestructable
atime`
a loss of glory
Brotos/Brotoi
Flesh (Humans/mortals)
Ambrotoi
Not-blooded (Gods)
Ambrosia
Deathless food
Sustains the gods
Nectar
Deathless Juice
Sustains the gods
Eichor
Gods version of blood - can lead to a terminal condition
Do ut des
'I give so you give'
relationship between the gods and humans
Apeiros
'Boundless'
Describes a gods life
Moira
'Portion/allotment'
describes the limited human life we are given
Choice of Moira
Only ever given to Achilles
He chose a short life filled with Kleos
Teichoskopei
'View from the wall'
Eidolon
Ghost-like entity, but has some corporal qualities
Nostoi
'the return' of all the greek warrios home (Except Odysseus)
Nostos
'Return'
Theme of the Odyssey
Mnester
'reminder'
The suitors in the Odyssey
Calypso
'I will hide'
Nymph who trapped Odyssues on Ogygia
Hector
Achilles counterpart
Son of Priam
Married to Andromache
Son = Astyanax
Lotophagoi
'Lotus eaters'
distractive Xenia
Katabasis
'downhill' a descent into the underworld and return
Nekuia
'Rebirth' after a trip to the underworld
Odysseus
King of Ithica
Phoenix
Achilles foster father
Ajax
2nd best warrior at troy after Achilles
Athiopis
Achilles death
1st in the epic cycle
Ilias Mikra
'Little Iliad'
2nd in epic cycle
Pre-sack of Troy
Iliopersis
'sack of Troy'
3rd epic cycle
Chrestomathy
Collection of a synopsis of the epic cycle
attributed to Proclus
Agamemnon
King of Mycenae, Greek leader in the Iliad
Aiolos
Gods of the winds in the Odyssey
Ajax
2nd best Greek fighter in the Trojan War
Alkinoos
King of Phaeacia
Andromache
Wife of Hector, A trojan in the Iliad
Antikleia
Mother of Odysseus
Arete
Queen of Phaeacia
Argos
Odysseus dog
Astyanax
Infant son of Hector, Iliad
Briseis
Achilles war prize, who is stolen by Agamemnon
Cassandra
Daughter of Priam, Princess of Troy, Stolen by Agamemnon - prophetess
Chryseis
Agamemnon's war prize, taken from her father Chryses
Chryses
Priest to Apollo
Circe
Enchantress who entices Odysseus
Demodukus
Blind Phaeacian poet who sings of the Trojan war
Diomedes
King of Argos
Elphenor
Comrade of Odysseus who dies on Circes island by falling off the roof
Eumaios
Swine herder from the royal house in Ithica
Eurykleia
Odysseus wet-nurse
Hector
Son of Priam, Achilles Trojan counterpart
Hecuba
Priam's wife
Helen
Queen of Sparta and wife of Menelaus, stolen by Paris to Troy
Herakles
Hero, who appears as a Eidolon in the Odyssey
Kalypso
'I will hide' nymph who traps Odysseus on her island
Laertes
Odysseus father
Menelaus
King of Sparta, husband of Helen in both the Odyssey and the Iliad
Nausikka
Phaeacian Princess who finds odysseus
Neoptolemus
Son of Achilles
Nestor
King of Pylos, a Greek
Odysseus
King of Ithica, husband of Penelope
Paris
Son of Priam, steals Helen from Sparta
Patrolcus
'Beloved' of Achilles. Killed by masquerading as Achilles in his armour
Peleus
Achilles father
Penelope
Queen of Ithica, wife of Odysseus
Phoenix
Achilles foster father, Greek hero
Priam
King of Troy, husband of Hecuba
Sarpendon
King of Lycia, fought on the side of the Trojans
Teiresias
Seer, encountered as a Eidolon by Odysseus in the underworld
Telemachos
Son of Odysseus
Thetis
Goddess mother of Achilles
Thersites
Greek fighter who gets beat up by Odysseus
Polutropon
many turns, in reference to Odysseus