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229 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Personality is (define)
the sum total of all emotional,
cognitive
& behavioral attributes of an individual


Personality is organized early in life and is dynamic and deeply ingrained; however IT CAN BE ALTERED
Personality involves an enduring pattern of
perceiving
relating to
& thinking about the environment & oneself that are exhibited in a wide array of social and personal contexts
When healthy personality structures allow for
realistic
happy
satisfying self-perceptions
interpersonal interactions
Personality is organized when
early in life and is dynamic and deeply ingrained; however IT CAN BE ALTERED
Patters of behavior based on personality can be perceived by the individual as comfortable ________ or uncomfortable ______
comfortable; ego-syntonic

uncomfortable; ego-dystonic
Ego-syntonic
Behavior consistent with personality

causes little concern to the individual

person generally fails to recognize the problem

person does not seek tx
person generally fails to recognize the problem
Ego-syntonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
person does not seek tx
Ego-syntonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
causes little concern to the individual
Ego-syntonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
Behavior consistent with personality
Ego-syntonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
Person often seeks tx
Ego-dystonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
characteristics of Ego-dystonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
behavior inconsistent with personality

causes discomfort and concern to the individual

person generally recognizes problem

Person often seeks tx
person generally recognizes problem
Ego-dystonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
causes discomfort and concern to the individual
Ego-dystonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
behavior inconsistent with personality
Ego-dystonic perception of patterns of behavior based on personality
Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns in what 4 areas of functionality
1) maladaptive AFFECTIVE TRAITS

2) maladaptive BEHAVIORAL TRAITS

3) maladaptive COGNITIVE TRAITS

4) maladaptive SOCIAL TRAITS
Maladaptive social traits
One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns

other areas of functionality
1) social
2) affective
3) cognitive
4) behavioral
Maladaptive behavioral traits
One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns

other areas of functionality
1) social
2) affective
3) cognitive
4) behavioral
Maladaptive cognitive traits
One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns

other areas of functionality
1) social
2) affective
3) cognitive
4) behavioral
Maladaptive affective traits
One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns

other areas of functionality
1) social
2) affective
3) cognitive
4) behavioral
Social, behavioral, cognitive, affective
4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns
e.g of maladaptive affective traits
such as...

overly affectual patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive cognitive traits
such as....

unrealistic perceptual patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive social traits
such as....

maladaptive unsatisfying interpersonal patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive behavioral traits
such as....

poor impulse control patterns of response
poor impulse control patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive behavioral traits

One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns
maladaptive unsatisfying interpersonal patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive social traits

One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns
unrealistic perceptual patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive cognitive traits

One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns
overly affectual patterns of response
e.g of maladaptive affective traits

One of the 4 areas of functionality in which Personality d/o manifest as maladaptive patterns
Personality d/o are (general description)
chronically maladaptive patterns of behaviors that cause functional impairment in work school or relationships

manifest in 4 areas of maladaptive functionality
1) social
2) cognitive
3) behavioral
4) affective
PD can cause ______ distress
Personality d/o can cause SUBJECTIVE distress
An individual is unlikely to recognize the problem and seek help in maladaptive patterns of behavior are....
ego-syntonic
An individual is more likely to recognize the problem and seek help in maladaptive patterns of behavior are....
ego-dystonic
In PD the maladaptive patterns are ____ & ______ across most personal and social situations
In PD the maladaptive patterns are INFLEXIBLE & PERVASIVE across most personal and social situations
PD are coded on what axis
Axis II
Clients seldom fit neatly into one personality d/o dx; rather
they often exhibit features of several similar d/o

for this reason PDs are often referred to by the category of commonly manifesting sx clusters (A, B, or C
Why are PDs often referred to by the category of commonly manifesting sx clusters
Because.....

Clients seldom fit neatly into one personality d/o dx; rather they often exhibit features of several similar d/o
Cluster A PD characteristic behavior
Odd
Unusual
Eccentric
Asocial
Unusual is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
A
Asocial is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
A
Odd is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
A
Eccentric is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
A
Dramatic is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
B
Affective is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
B
Instability is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
B
Anxious is a PD characteristic behavior of Cluster ___
C
Cluster B PD characteristic behavior
Dramatic
Affective
Instability
Dramatic
Affective
Instability
Cluster B PD characteristic behavior
Cluster C PD characteristic behavior
Anxious
Anxious
Cluster C PD characteristic behavior
Personality d/o in Cluster A
Paranoid PD
Schizoid PD
Schizotypal PD
Personality d/o in Cluster B
Antisocial PD
Borderline PD
Histrionic PD
Narcissistic PD
Personality d/o in Cluster C
Avoidant PD
Dependent PD
Obsessive-compulsive PD
Paranoid PD
Schizoid PD
Schizotypal PD
Personality d/o in Cluster A
Antisocial PD
Borderline PD
Histrionic PD
Narcissistic PD
Personality d/o in Cluster B
Avoidant PD
Dependent PD
Obsessive-compulsive PD
Personality d/o in Cluster C
Avoidant PD is in Cluster ___
C
Dependent PD is in Cluster ___
C
Obsessive-compulsive PD is in Cluster ___
C
Narcissistic PD is in Cluster ___
B
Histrionic PD is in Cluster ___
B
Borderline PD is in Cluster ___
B
Antisocial PD is in Cluster ___
B
Paranoid PD is in Cluster ___
A
Schizotypal PD is in Cluster ___
A
Schizoid PD is in Cluster ___
A
Schizoid PD
Schizotypal PD
& ______ are cluster A
Paranoid PD
Schizoid PD
Paranoid PD & _____ are cluster A
Schizotypal PD
Paranoid PD
Schizotypal PD and _____ are cluster A
Schizoid PD
Avoidant PD
Dependent PD and _____ are Cluster C
Obsessive-compulsive PD
Avoidant PD
Obsessive-compulsive PD and _____ are Cluster C
Dependent PD
Obsessive-compulsive
Dependent and _____ are Cluster C
Avoidant PD
Antisocial PD
Borderline PD
Histrionic PD and _____ are Cluster B
Narcissistic PD
Antisocial PD
Histrionic PD
Narcissistic PD and _____ are Cluster B
Borderline PD
Histrionic PD
Narcissistic PD
Antisocial PD and _____ are Cluster B
Borderline PD
Borderline PD
Narcissistic PD
Histrionic PD
and _____ are Cluster B
Antisocial PD
Narcissistic PD
Borderline PD
Antisocial PD and _____ are Cluster B
Histrionic PD
PD have a probable _____ etiological profile
PD have a probable MULTIFACTORIAL etiological profile

1) Psychodynamic theory
*early separation problems
* disturbed parental interaction

2) Biological theory
*Genetic
*structural abnormalities
*NT dysfunction
*Neurobiological impact of trauma
Most well researched PD?
Borderline
2 main theories of PD etiology
Psychodynamic
Biological

Probably multifactorial profile


1) Psychodynamic theory
*early separation problems
* disturbed parental interaction

2) Biological theory
*Genetic
*structural abnormalities
*NT dysfunction
*Neurobiological impact of trauma
Psychodynamic theory of PD etiology (primarily borderline) is base on what 2 etiological factors:
Early separation problems
&
Disturbed parental interaction
Early separation problems is in what theory of PD etiology
Psychodynamic theory of PD etiology (primarily borderline) is based on 2 etiological factors:

1) Early separation problems
2) Disturbed parental interaction
Object relations theory is part of what theory of etiology of PD
Etiology of PD

1)Psychodynamic theory
A) early separation problems
a) Object relations theory
*separation -individuation
B) disturbed parental interactions
2) Biological
Biological theory of etiology of PD has 4 subsections
1) genetics
2) structural abnormalities
3) NT dysfunction
4) Neurobiological impact of trauma
Neurobioligcal impact of trauma
One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD

*Assumes early childhood trauma alters basic brain patterns of response

*In genetically susceptible individuals, may fxn as the environmental vulnerability that causes expression of genetic load

*most studies in borderline PD
In genetically susceptible individuals, may fxn as the environmental vulnerability that causes expression of genetic load
Neurobiological impact of trauma

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Assumes early childhood trauma alters basic brain patterns of response
Neurobiological impact of trauma

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Genetic factors
*Familial tendency
*Genetic overlap between loading for some Axis I disorders and PD

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Familial tendency
Genetic Factor

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Genetic overlap between loading for some Axis I disorders and PD
Genetic Factor

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Structural abnormalities
Reduced gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex

Limbic system deregulation

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Reduced gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex
Structural abnormalities

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
limbic system deregulation
Under Structural abnormalities

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Neurotransmitter dysfunction
Decreased levels of 5HT
Elevated levels of NE
Dysregulation of DA receptors

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Decreased levels of 5HT
Neurotransmitter dysfunction

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Elevated levels of NE
Neurotransmitter dysfunction

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Dysregulation of DA receptors
Neurotransmitter dysfunction

(One of the 4 subsections of the Biological theory of etiology of PD)
Risk factors for PD
Genetic loading

Dysfuntional family of origin
4 stages to process of separation-individuation
(Mahler)

1. differentiation
2. Practicing
3. Repprochement
4. object constancy
Object relations theory
Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD

Internalized intrapsychic experiences of interpersonal relationships

Mental representation of the self in relation to others

Stability & depth of an individual's relationships

During development child must accomplish 2 tasks: separation & individuation
During development child must accomplish 2 tasks:
1. separation
2. individuation


OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY
Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD
Separation
OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY
Develop intrapsychic self-representation distinct & separate from mother


Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD
Develop intrapsychic self-representation distinct & separate from mother
Separation

Object relations theory; Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD
individuation
form distinct identity with characteristics unique to the individual

Object relations theory:
Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD
form distinct identity with characteristics unique to the individual
Individuation

one of the 2 tasks child must accomplish during development

Object relations theory:
Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD
Differentiation
practicing
repprochement
object constancy
4 stages to process of separation-individuation

Different PDs linked to problems w/ different stages of the separation-individuation process
Failure in separation-individuatio is
etiologically linked to development of PD

Object relations theory:
Sub set of the Psychodynamic theory under early separation problems as an etiology for PD
Disturbed Parental interaction
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
disturbed parental interaction

Family background assumed to be dysfunctional
*enmeshed family patterns
*role reversal patterns of kid-parent interxn
*restricted involvement of family with the rest of the environment
*social isolation
*confusion of parental authority & nurturing roles
*blurred family boundaries
blurred family boundaries
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
*****disturbed parental interaction such as this one

Family background assumed to be dysfunctional
confusion of parental authority & nurturing roles
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
*****disturbed parental interaction such as this one
social isolation as etiology
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
*****disturbed parental interaction such as this one
restricted involvement of family with the rest of the environment
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
*****disturbed parental interaction such as this one
role reversal patterns of kid-parent interxn
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
*****disturbed parental interaction such as this one
enmeshed family patterns
Psychodynamic theory of etiology of PD based on either early separation problems or
*****disturbed parental interaction such as this one
Prevention of PD
preventive work with young children in identified dysfunctional family settings
Assessment of pt w/ PD
*often several interviews are needed to clarify the diagnostic picture

*Long term patterns of functioning: assess stability of traits over time and across situations
Cultural issues vs maladaptive personality traits
issues of acculturation in new immigrants

cultural expression of habitual behavior

custom of religious practices
On assessment patterns of pervasive distrust (usually not at psychotic level)
Cluster___
A
On assessment patterns of suspiciousness with odd and unusual behavior
Cluster ____
A
On assessment sig hx of limited social network
Cluster ____
A
On assessment sig hx of poor interpersonal relation ships
Cluster ____
A
On assessment sig hx of limited disclosure or revealing of self to others, often refusing to answer personal questions
Cluster ____
A
On assessment sig hx of compliments often mis interpreted
Cluster ____
A
On assessment sig hx of pathological jealousy common
Cluster____
A
On assessment sig hx of difficult to get along with
Cluster____
A
On assessment sig hx of appearing cold and lacking in feelings
Cluster____
A
On assessment sig hx of high control needs
Cluster____
A
On assessment sig hx of rigid and critical of others
Cluster____
A
On assessment sig hx of often highly litigious (Unreasonably prone to go to law to settle disputes)
Cluster____
A
On assessment sig hx of negatively perceiver others; often biased and prone to stereotypes
Cluster____
A
On assessment patterns of pervasive affective disruption
Cluster____
B
On assessment patterns of pervasive interpersonal disruption Cluster____
B
On assessment patterns of pervasive affective & interpersonal disruption Cluster____
B
Of all clusters, disorders of Cluster _____ type may require hospitalization during period of active sx expression and when pt under sig levels of stress
B
On assessment sig hx of fluctuation emotional states
Cluster ___
B
On assessment sig hx of dramatic qualities to how the individual lives his/her life
Cluster___
B
usually dx by age 18
antisocial PD
More common in men
antisocial PD
high substance abuse comorbidity
antisocial PD
often dx w/ conduct d/o as kids
antisocial PD
Personality disorder criteria: CAPRI
Cognition Affect
Personal Relations Impulse control
Personality disorder clusters:(acronym)
Personality disorder clusters: Cluster A: MAD
Cluster B: BAD
Cluster C: SAD
Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships
Paranoid PD
Cluster A
Chooses solitary activities
Paranoid PD
Cluster A
Shows little to no interest in sexual activity with another person
Paranoid PD

Cluster A
Derives no pleasure in social activities
Paranoid PD
Cluster A
Lacks close friends or social supports
Schizoid personality Disorder
Cluster A
Is indifferent of opinion of others
Schizoid personality Disorder
Cluster A
Appears cold and detached
Schizoid personality Disorder
Cluster A
Exhibits affective flattening
Schizoid personality Disorder
Cluster A
Ideas of reference
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Odd beliefs
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Magical thinking
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Unusal perceptual experiences
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Paranoid ideation
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Inappropriate or constricted affect
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Behavior overtly odd
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Behavior overtly eccentric
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Behavior overtly peculiar
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Few or no close friends
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
Excessive social anxiety
Schizotypal personality Disorder
Cluster A
PD predominately in women
Borderline PD
Cluster B
often with positive hx of sig childhood abuse, neglect or early parental separation or loss
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Pattern of unstable, intense interpersonal relationships
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Identity disturbances
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Impulsivity often w/ self damaging behavior
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Recurrent suicidal behavior
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Chronic feelings of emptiness
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Inappropriate, intensified affective anger responses
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Transient psychotic sx of paranoia and dissociation
Borderline PD
Cluster B
Failure to conform to social norms
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Repeated acts that are grounds for arrest
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Deceitfulness for profit
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Lying for pleasure
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Use of aliases for profit
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Deceitfulness, lying, or use of aliases for profit or pleasure
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Impulsivity and failure of future planning
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Reckless disregard for the welfare of others
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
consistent irresponsibility
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Lack of remorse
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Indifference to the feelings of others
Antisocial PD
Cluster B PD
Uncomfortable in situations in which he/she is not center of attention
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interactions with others characterized by inappropriate seductive behavior
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interactions with others characterized by sexualized behavior
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interactions with others characterized by provocative behavior
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interactions with others characterized by rapid shifting
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interactions with others characterized by shallow emotional responses
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interactions with others characterized by inappropriate seductive,or sexualized or provocative behavior, rapid shifting and shallow emotional responses
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Consistent use of physical appearance to draw attention to self
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Speech excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Suggestive and easily influenced
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
easily influenced
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Suggestive
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Relationships considered more intimate than they are
Histrionic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Grandiose sense of self-importance
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Preoccupation with fantasies of power
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Preoccupation with fantasies of success
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Preoccupation with fantasies of brilliance
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Preoccupation with fantasies of beauty
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Preoccupation with fantasies of beauty, power, success, brilliance
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Belief of self-importance and being special & unique
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Belief of being special
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Belief of self-importance
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Belief of being unique
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Excessive admiration required
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Unreasonable expectation
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Sense of entitlement
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Unreasonable expectations or sense of entitlement
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Interpersonally exploitative
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Empathy lacking
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Envy of others
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Empathy lacking
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Envy of others and belief that others envy him or her
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Belief that others envy him or her
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Arrogant behaviors
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Arrogant and haughty behaviors
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Haughty behaviors
Narcissistic personality d/o

Cluster B Personality d./o
Patterns of pervasive anxiety and fear
Cluster C d/o
Sig hx includes avoidant behavior
Cluster C d/o
Assessment reveals sig hx of procrastination
Cluster C d/o
Assessment reveals sig hx of difficulty in following through
Cluster C d/o
Assessment reveals sig hx of fearful of rejection and criticism
Cluster C d/o
Assessment reveals sig hx of difficulty relaxing
Cluster C d/o
When looking at avoidant behavior what must the provider consider?
Cultural variable
Gender preference in avoidant PD
d/o = for both genders
Gender preference in Dependent PD
do higher in women than men
Commonly dx in individuals w hx of chronic physical illnesses
Dependent PD
Gender preference of Obsessive-compulsive PD
predominantly in men