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64 Cards in this Set

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reproductive systems 1 (repro1)

Name three things the reporductive organs do in general

The primary male sex organs are the _____. For the female, the _____.
1)produce sex cells and sex hormones
2)sustain these sex cells
3)transport these cells from place to place

testes, ovaries

Describe the structure of the testes.

where are the sperm cells produced?

Where are the male sex hormones produced?
The testes are composed of LOBULES separated by CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and filled with SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES

The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules produces the sperm cells.

the interstitial cells of the testes produce male sex hormones.

Name two types of cells found in the seminiferous tubule epithelium, and what these cells do.

describe the parts of a sperm cell.
1)supporting cells - support and nourish spermatogenic cells.
2)spermatogenic cells - give rise to sperm cells

Sperm cell has a HEAD, MIDPIECE, and TAIL

Define spermatogenesis
The process by which sperm cells are produced.

Which cells give rise to sperm cells eventually?

How many chromosomes are in each sperm cell. What process is important in this chromosome number

23 chromosomes


Describe the process of spermatogenesis starting from spermatogonia.

How many sperm cells are produced for EACH primary spermatocyte.
Spermatogonia give rise, by MITOSIS, to primary spermatocytes. Primary spermatocytes give rise by MEIOSIS to secondary spermatocytes. Secondary spermatocytes give rise to spermatids which them develop into mature sperm cells.


WHat is the epididymis. What physically does it lead into?

What is the function of the epididymis?
it is a tightly coiled tube. it leads to the vas deferens.

stores and nourished immature sperm cells, and promotes their maturation

What is the vas deferens?

Describe the course or position of the vas deferens.

What does the vas deferens turn into?
a muscular tube.

it passes through the INGUINAL CANAL, enters the ABDOMINAL cavity, courses medially into the PELVIC cavity, and ends BEHIND the urinary BLADDER.

If fuses with the duct from the SEMINAL VESICLE to form the EJACULATORY DUCT.
What is the seminal vesicle? What does it attach to?

What does it produce? Give some examples of some nutrients.
a saclike structure attached to the vas deferens.

secretes an alkaline fluid that contains nutrients, such as fructose and prostaglandins.

Where does the prostate gland lie?

What does it produce?
It surrounds the urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder

Secretes a thin, milky fluid that NEUTRALIZES the pH of semen and the acidic secretions of the vagina.

Where are the bulbourethral glands?

What do they do?
bulbourethral glands are two small structures INFERIOR to the PROSTATE gland.

secrete a fluid that LUBRICATES the penis in preparation for sex
Name 4 components of semen.

what is the pH of semen?
1)sperm cells
2)secretions of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands

slightly alkaline

sperm cells in semen begin to ____, but these sperm cells are unable to ____ egg cells until they enter the ____ _____ ____.

What is the scrotum made of?

What does the scrotum do?
swim, fertilize, female reproductive tract.

a pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue

The scrotum encloses the testes for PROTECTION, and TEMPERATURE REGULATION.

The penis is specialized to become ____ for insertion into the ____ during sex.

What does the penis contain that helps in its function?
erect, vagina

its body is composed of three columns of erectile tissue.

During erection, the ____ _____ within the erectile tissue engorge with _____.

_____ is the culmination or end-result of sexual stimulation. What two things accompany male orgasm?
vascular spaces, blood.



Define emission

Define ejaculation.

How is semen moved along the reproductive tract?
1)movement of sperm cells from the testes, and secretion from the prostate gland and seminal vesicles into the urethra, where they mix to form semen

the process by which semen is forced through the urethra to the outside.

Semen is moved along by REFLEX CONTRACTION of smooth muscle in the walls of the tubular structures.

The male body remains reproductively immature until the ____ releases ____, which stimulates the _____ ____ gland to release ______.

What does FSH do in the male? LH? What is another word for LH in the male?
hypothalamus, GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), anterior pituitary, gonadotropins

FSH (follicle simulating hormone) stimulates SPERMATOGENESIS.

LH (Luteinizing hormone) or ICSH (interstitial cell-stimulating hormone) stimulates interstitial cells to PRODUCE MALE SEX HORMONES.

Male sex hormones are called ______. Which is the most important one?

When does the male sex hormone production increase rapidly?
androgens. Testosterone.


List two functions of testosterone.

Testosterone concentration is regulated by what type of mechanism? How does this affect the stability of amount of testosterone?
1)stimulates development of the MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
2)develops and maintains male SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS

a negative feedback mechanism. Testosterone concentration remains relatively stable.

Describe the negative feedback mechanism affecting testosterone production.
Increasing testosterone concentration INHIBITS the HYPOTHALAMUS, and reduces the anterior pituitary's secretion of GONADOTROPINS.

As testosterone concentration falls, the hypothalamus signals the anterior pituitary to secrete gonadotropins.
What two parts is the ovary made of?

What is the inner part made of, and what does it contain?

What does the outer part contain, and what is it lined by?
medulla (inner part) and cortex (outer part)

medulla composed of connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves.

cortex contains ovarian follicles and is covered by cuboidal epithelium.

What is a primordial follicle? When are they formed?

The primary oocyte begins _____, but the process halts until _____.

Is the number of oocytes constant in a female's life?
Each primordial follicle contains a PRIMARY OOCYTE and a layer of follicular cells. They are formed during embryogenesis/prenatal development.

meiosis, puberty

No. The number of oocytes declines throughout a female's life.

Beginning at ____, some ____ are stimulate do continue meiosis.

Where does a secondary oocyte come from. How many chromosomes does it have? What is its role in fertilization?
puberty, oocytes

When a primary oocyte begins oogenesis, it gives rise to a secondary oocyte. 23 chromosomes.
Fertilization of a secondary oocyte produces a zygote.

What initiates follicle maturation, and when? Do all follicles mature at the same time?

During maturation, the oocyte ____, the follicular cells _____, and a ____-____ ____ forms.
at puberty, FSH initiates follicle maturation. Usually only one follicle at a time fully develops (one follicle per menstrual cycle).

enlarges, multiply, fluid-filled cavity

what is ovulation?

what happens to the oocyte after ovulation?
the rupture of the follicle, with release of the oocyte from the ovary.

the oocyte is drawn into the opening of the uterine tube.

Name the female internal accessory organs

Name the female external reproductive organs
uterine tubes, uterus, vagina

labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule

describe the appearance of the uterine tube. What is another name for it?

What helps transport the oocyte down the uterine tube.

Where does fertilization usually occur, if it is going to?
the uterine tube (or fallopian tube) expands at the ovarian end. Its margin bears irregular extensions or FIMBRIAE

Ciliated cells (that line the tube), and peristaltic contractions of the tube wall help with transport.

Fertilization usually occurs in the tube.

what is the function of the uterus?

Name the three parts of the uterine wall
uterus receives the embryo and sustains it during development.

endometrium (inner lining), myometrium (muscle), and perimetrium.

Name three functions of the vagina.

Name three parts of the vaginal wall.
1)receives the erect penis
2)conveys uterine secretions to the outside.
3)provides an open channel for the fetus during birth.

mucosal, muscular, and fibrous layers.

what are the labia majora

the upper ends (anterior ends) of the labia majora form a rounded elevation over the ____ _____.
rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin.

symphysis pubis

what are the labia minora.

The labia minora are well supplied with _____
flattened, longitudinal FOLDS between the labia majora.


where is the clitoris?

The clitoris corresponds to the ____ in the male.

What is in the clitoris
the clitoris is a small projection at the anterior end of the vulva.


two columns of erectile tissue.

What is the vestibule?

What lie in the vestibule, and what do they do?
the space between the labia minora.

Vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulation.

During periods of sexual stimulation, the erectile tissues of the _____ and ____ _____ engorge with ____

The vestibular glands secrete ____ into the ____ and the _____.

During orgasm, the muscles of the ____, ____ ____, and ____ ____ contract rhythmically.
clitoris, vestibular bulbs, blood.

mucus, vestibule, vagina

perineum, uterine wall, uterine tubes

List several female secondary sex characteristics.

List several male secondary sex characteristics
1)breast development (including development of the mammary glands and ducts within the breast)
2)Increased fat deposition in breast, thighs, buttocks (subcutaneous layers of these areas)
3)increased vascularization of the skin.

1)increased body hair growth, especially face, chest, axillary, pubic
2)enlargement of larynx, thickening of vocal folds, lower pitch of voice
3)thickening of the skin
4)increased muscular growth, broadening shoulders, narrowing waist.
5)thickening and strengthening of the bones.

A female body remains reproductively immature until about ____ years of age, when ____ secretion increases.

What are the two most important female sex hormones, and what general functions do they have?
ten, gonadotropin

1)estrogens - develop and maintain most femal secondary sex characteristics
2)progesterone - changes the uterus

Define menstrual cycle.

Define ovarian cycle.
regular, recurring changes int eh uterine lining, which culminate in menstrual bleeding (menses).

cyclical changes in the ovary occurring at the same time as those in the uterus

Summarize the major events in a menstrual/ovarian cycle.
FSH ->stimulates follicle maturation ->estrogen ->thickens the endometrium (uterine lining).

LH (anterior pituitary)->ovulation->follicle becomes corpus lutem -> progesterone->uterine lining becomes more vascular and glandular.

(estrogen and progesterone inhibit FSH and LH release)

If no fertilization->corpus luteum degenerates->decrease in progesterone (and estrogen)->uterine lining disintegrates-> menstruation. LH and FSH increase again (because estr and progesterone decrease), starting a new cycle.

____ initiates a menstrual cycle by stimulating _____ maturation. These maturing _____ cells secrete _____, which maintain the _____ sex traits, and thicken the _____ _____.

Secretion of a relatively large amount of _____ by the ____ pituitary triggers ______.

Following ovulation, follicular cells give rise to the _____ _____.
FSH, follicle,follicle, estrogen, secondary, uterine lining.

LH, anterior, ovulation.

corpus luteum

The corpus luteum secretes ______, which causes the uterine lining to become more _____ and _____.

If an oocyte is not ______, the corpus luteum begins to ______.

As concentrations of _____ and _____ decline, the uterine lining _____, causing _____ flow.
progesterone, vascular, glandular.

Fertilized, degenerate

estrogens, progesterone, disintegrates, menstrual

During the menstrual cycle, estrogens and progesterone inhibit the release of ____ and _____. As concentrations of ____ and _____ decline, the anterior _____ secretes _____ and ______ again, stimulating a new _____ _______.
LH and FSH, estrogens, progesterone, pituitary, LH, FSH, menstrual cycle.

What is menopause.

What hormonal changes happen in menopause? what can this lead to?
The termination of the menstrual cycles due to aging of the ovaries.

Decrease in estrogens and lack of progesterone. This may cause regressive changes in female secondary sex characteristics.

Where are the mammary glands?

What are they composed of?

What separates the lobes?

How do ovarian hormones affect the breast ?
1)in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thorax.

2)they are composed of LOBES that contain glands and a duct.

3)dense connective and adipose (fat) tissues separate the lobes.

4)Ovarian hormones stimulate female breast development, including ENLARGING alveolar glands and ducts, and DEPOSITION of FAT around and within the breasts.

What is the definition of birth control? What does it usually involve?
voluntary regulation of how many children are produced, and when they are conceived.

It usually involves some type of contraception

List two types of birth control that do not involve mechanical or chemical barriers.
1)coitus interruptus - withdrawal of penis from vagina before ejaculation.
2)rhythm method - abstinence from sex for several days before and after ovulation.

List three types of mechanical barriers used in birth

What are some chemical barriers of birth control? How do they work?
condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps

spermicidal creams, foams, jellies - unfavorable environment for sperm survival in the vagina

Birth control pills contain _____ estrogen-like and _____ - _____ substances. How do they work?
synthetic, progesterone-like

They disrupt normal pattern of gonadotropin secretion. They prevent ovulation and the normal buildup of the uterine lining.

Birth control pills disrupt a female's normal pattern of _____ secretion and prevent _____ and the normal buildup of the ____ _____.

Name a type of injectable contraception. How often is it given?
gonadotropin, ovulation, uterine lining.

medroxyprogesterone acetate. Every three months.

What is a contraceptive implant. What hormone does it contain? where does it go? how does it work?
A substance inserted UNDER the SKIN. It is made up of PROGESTERONE-containing capsules or rods. The progesterone released from the implant PREVENTS OVULATION.

What is an IUD? where does it go? how does it work?

Name two surgical methods of contraception.
IUD stands for intrauterine device. THey are inserted into the UTERINE CAVITY. They prevent pregnancy by INTERFERING with IMPLANTATION of the blastocyst.

Male vasectomy. Female tubal ligation.
STD stands for ____ _____ ______. They are passed during ____ _____ and may go _____ for years. How many STD's are known about?

List some symptoms/signs of STD's.
sexually transmitted disease, sexual contact, undetected. There are twenty recognized STD's.

1)burning sensation during urination
2)pain in the lower abdomen
3)fever or swollen glands in teh neck
4)discharge from vagina or penis
5)pain, itching, inflammation in the genital or anal area.
6)pain during intercourse
7)sores, blisters, bumps, or rash on body, especially mouth or genitals
8)itch, runny eyes.

What vessels are in the umbilical cord?

What is the function of the amniotic fluid?
TWO umbilical arteries (remember these come from the TWO fetal iliac arteries), and ONE umbilical VEIN.

allows the embryo to grow freely without compression from surrounding tissues. Protects the embryo from jarring movements of the mother.

Define the fetal stage.

What happens in general during this stage?

When is the fetus full-term?
The fetal stage extends from the end of the eighth week until birth.

Fetal structures grow and mature. Only a few new parts appear.

At the end of the 40th week (IF the first day is the first day of the last menstrual period). It is the end of the 38th week (if the 1st day is considered the day of fertilization)

Describe a full-term fetus
about 50 cm long, weighs 2.7-3.6 kg. Sebum and epidermal cells coat the skin. Hair and nails are present. Skull bones are ossified. Usually positioned with head towards the maternal cervix.

Umbilical vessels carry blood between the _____ and the ____

Which blood (maternal or fetal) carries a great concentration of oxygen?
placenta, fetus

fetal blood

Describe the path of the fetal blood.

Blood entering the pulmonary trunk partially bypasses the lungs through the ____ ______
blood enters fetus through umbilical VEIN, partially bypasses liver through DUCTUS VENOSUS, then enters the RIGHT ATRIUM, and partially bypasses the lungs through the FORAMEN OVALE.
Blood entering the pulmonary trunkc partially bypasses the lungs through the DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS. Blood enters the UMBILICAL ARTERIES from the internal iliac arteries.

Compare fetal with adult hemoglobin
fetal hemoglobin has a greater attraction for oxygen than adult hemoglobin. It can carry more oxygen as well.

The ductus venosus extends from the ______ ______ to the ______ ______ ______.

The ductus arteriosus extends from the _____ _____ to the ____ _____.

The foramen ovale is an opening between the ____ and _____ ____. In which direction does the blood flow through the foramen ovale? WHY?
umbilical vein, inferior vena cava

pulmonary trunk, aortic arch.

right, left atria. Blood passes from the RIGHT atrium INTO THE LEFT atrium. The lungs are collapsed and nonfunctional, and blood pressure is higher in the right atrium than in the left.

During pregnancy, what inhibits uterine contractions?

What factors promote birth?

Following birth, ______ tissues are expelled.
placental progesterone mainly.

1)decreasing progesterone, and the release of a prostaglandin. THese INITIATE the birth process.
2)posterior pituitary gland releases OXYTOCIN
3)oxytocin stimulates uterine muscles to contract and LABOR begins


Following childbirth, concentrations of placental hormones ____, the action of _____ is no longer blocked, and the ____ _____ begin to secrete milk.

What happens with mechanical stimulation of the mother's nipple?
decline, prolactin, mammary glands

a reflex response causes the posterior pituitary to release OXYTOCIN, which causes the alveolar ducts to EJECT MILK.
When is the neonatal period?

Why must the first breath be particularly forceful?
from birth until the end of the first FOUR weeks.

the newborn's lungs are collapsed, and its small airways offer considerable RESISTANCE to air movement. SURFACE TENSION tends to hold the membranes of the lungs together.

Name four important things the newborn must do on its own.

What must a newborn use for energy. Why?
1)begin to breathe
2)obtain nutrients
3)excrete wastes
4)regulate body temperature.

It must use STORED FAT for energy. Its liver is immature and is unable to supply engough glucose to support its high metabolic requirements.

Why might newborns develop dehydration, or water and electrolyte imbalances easily?

Why is it important to keep in mind the warmth of the newborn's surroundings?
Their kidneys are unable to produce concentrated urine, so they excrete a dilute fluid.

Homeostatic mechanisms in the newborn may function imperfectly, and BODY TEMPERATURE may be UNSTABLE.

Describe the changes in the newborn's cardiovascular system.
1)umbilical vessels constrict
2)ductus venosus constricts
3)a valve closes the foramen ovale as blood pressure in the right atrium falls, but rises in the left atrium
4)ductus arteriosus constricts.