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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which vein is used most often?
median cubital
veins for long term IV fluids
dorsal venous network, cephalic, basilic
where cardiac catheter inserted
cubital veins
winged scapula due to injury of...
long thoracic nerve
also: serratus anterior can't rotate glenoid fossa superiorly so arm can't be ABducted more than 90 deg
atrophy of deltoid
axillary nerve injury/ when surgical neck of humerus is fractured
most common rotator cuff injury
rupture of the supraspinatus
-the tendon of the supraspinatus is separated from the coracoacromial bursa
shoulder separation
coracoclavicular ligament tear - shoulder falls away from clavicle due to weight of arm (mainttain integrity of AC joint)
which part of the rotator cuff is not reinforced
the inferior part- it is reinforced posteriorly, superiorly, and anteriorly
-in a dislocation, the head of the humerus pops through this non-reinforced part
most common dislocation of glenohumeral joint in young adults and athletes
anterior dislocation ; axillary nerve may be injured in dislocation
subacromial bursitis
calcium deposits in supraspinatus tendon may irritate the bursa -OR- subacromial bursa itself can become inflamed and calcified = calcific scapulohumeral bursitis, leads to limitation of glenohumeral joint
which rotator cuff muscle doesnt attach to the greater tubercle of the humerus
tendon of the subscapularis inserts on the lesser tubercle
coronal plane
div into anterior/posterior portions
median plane
divides body into equal L+R 1/2's
primary curves of spine
sacral/cocc, thoracic
secondary "compensatory" curves of spine
cervical, lumbar
facet joints
zygapophyseal joints - superior and inferior articular processes- true synovial joints, permit gliding movements b/t vertebrae
which vertebrae have transverse foramenae
cervical except C7, contain vertebral artery
atlanto-occipital joint
only permit flexion/extension = "yes joint"
atlanto-axial joint
only permits rotatory motion = "no joint"
which vertebrae don't have an IV disc between them?
C1 + C2
most inferior IV disc?
b/t L5 and sacrum
2 parts of IV disc
annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus (loses water, replaced by fibrocartilage with age)
anterior longitudinal ligament
-thick, broad, strong
-reinforces LATERAL part of IV discs
-prevents hyperextension of vertebral column (ONLY extension-limiting ligament)
-maintains stability of intervertebral joints
posterior longitudinal ligament
-narrower, weaker than anterior
-runs within the vertebral canal along posterior aspect of vertebral bodies
-helps prevent hyperflexion of vet column and protrusion of IV discs
ligaments that bind the laminae together
ligamenta flava (yellow)
flexion limiting ligaments
-supraspinous (connects tips of spines)
-interspinous (weak, fills spaces between spines)
-lig flava
-posterior long. lig
only muscles that are superficial but considered deep back muscles
splenius capitus + cervicus
spinal nerves
cervical-> 8 pairs (1st b/t C1 and occipital bone)
thoracic-> 12 pairs (nerves start exiting below foramen here, rather than above)
lumbar + sacral-> each 5
spinal cord ends...
b/t L1 and L2
cone-shaped tip of spinal cord
conus medullaris
what prevents the spinal cord from moving anteriorly and posteriorly?
denticulate ligament
pia mater filament that anchors the spinal cord to the sacrum
filum terminali
rootlets floating below L2
cauda equina (where you do a spinal tap for CSF)
dorsal roots
sensory (in)
ventral roots
motor (out)
spinal ganglion is on which root?
dorsal rami
smaller, supply skin and deep back muscles, don't join
ventral rami
upper and lower limbs
thoracic + abdominal muscles
certain ventral rami form a plexus- they are...
thoracic (intercostals)
lumb + thoracic (brachial plexus)
lumb + sacral (supply muscle +skin of lower limbs)
2nd type of nerve fiber found in all spinal nerves
sympathetic nerve fibers - supply vascular smooth muscle --> reg BP, sweat glands etc.
posterior triangle boundaries
-lateral edge sternocleidomastoid
-Ant border trapezius
-Middle 1/3 of clavicle
axilla boundaries
anterior wall -pac major, pec minor
posterior wall - subscap + scap, teres maj + lats
lateral boundary- intertubercular groove humerus
medial boundary - lateral aspect of thoracic wall, intercostals, serr. ant.
major protractor/abductor of scapula
serratus anterior (but trap important too)
posterior triangle floor
3 scalenes, levator scapulae, upper part of splenius cervicus
nerve accidentally injured during radical mastectomy
long thoracic nerve
apex of axilla
portions of 3 bones:
- superior border scap
-mid 1/3 clavicle
-1st rib
nerve off C5 root
dorsal scapular
long thoracic (others run into it also)
nerve off superior trunk
nerves off lateral cord
lateral pectoral, then branches into musculocutaneous and lateral head of median nerve
nerves off posterior cord
1. upper subscapular
2. thoracodorsal
3. lower subscapular
-then branches into axillary and radial nerves
nerves off medial cord
1. medial pectoral
2. medial cutaneous of arm (brachial)
3. medial cutaneous of forearm (antebrachial)
-then ulnar and median head of median nerve
dorsoscapular nerve innervates:
levator scapula
2 rhomboids
median nerve innervates:
3 muscles that move thumb
flexors of anterior forearm
pronators of anterior forearm
radial nerve innervates:
extensor muscles
axillary nerve innervates:
teres minor
terminal branch only supplies deltoid
thoracodorsal innervates:
latissimus doris
subscapular innervates:
subscapularis + teres major
lateral pectoral nerve innervates:
pectoralis major
medial pectoral nerve innervates:
pectoralis major and minor
(cutaneous medial part of forearm ? i don't get my notes)
cutaneous sensory loss, confined to dermatone
injury of C6 nerve
axillary artery from scalene divides into 3 where
at pec minor
1st branch axillary artery
superior thoracic artery
-b/t pec minor + 1st rib
-supplies soft tissue in 1st couple intercostals
2nd branch axillary artery
thoracoacromial artery
-behind pec minor
-usually 2 branches (lateral thoracic artery)
-to pec maj + minor
3rd part axillary artery
3 branches:
-anterior humeral circumflex
-posterior humeral circumflex* (tags)
where is clavicle commonly fractured?
b/t lateral 1/3 + medial 2/3
clavicle description
anterior medial convex
anterior lateral concave
medial part is larger
sternoclavicular joint helps...
move arm out and in
-clavicle acts as a brace to push upper limb away from trunk
-more stable than AC joint
what ligament is principle stabilizer of AC joint?
coracoclavicular ligament
elevation of scapula
-superior trapezius
-levator scapula
depression of scapula
-pec minor
-inferior trap
-inferior serratus anterior
protraction of scapula
-pec minor
-serratus anterior
retraction of scapula
-rhomboids "boobie muscles"
-middle trap
-latissimus dorsi
main muscles that move pectoral girdle
pec minor
serratus anterior
levator scapula
rhomboid M+M
coracoclavicular ligament prevents...
upward dislocation of head of humerus
-suspends scapula to lateral end of clavicle
tendon inside glenohumeral jt
long head of biceps
bursa b/t supraspinatus and bicep tendon
subacromial subdeltoid bursa
weight-bearing part of elbow
trochlea of humerus + trochlear notch
humeroulnar jt only permits...
flexion/ extension
motions of proximal radioulnar jt
articular capsule of elbow jt reinforced with...
collateral ligaments
lateral (radial)
-limit motion to flexion/extension
what holds head radius against radial notch of ulna?
radialannular ligament
radius over ulna
bones parallel
transmits bone forces from radius to ulna
interosseus membrane
flexors of elbow
-brachioradialis (esp. when midway b/t pron + supin)
(1st two musculocutaneous, 3rd radial nerve)
only extensor of elbow/forearm
3 heads of triceps
which muscle can supinate the forearm besides the supinator?
cephalic and basilic united across elbow by what?
median cubital vein
muscular side walls of cubital fossa:
pronator teres
what nerve lies under the brachioradialis, isn't in the cubital fossa
2 bones that form radiocarpal joint
most frequently fractured carpal bone
most frequently dislocated carpal bone
primary flexors of the wrist
flexor carpi radialis (median nerve)
flexor carpi ulnaris (ulnar nerve)
palmaris longus (weakly contributes)
primary extensors of wrist
extensor carpi radialis longus
extensor carpi radialis brevis
extensor carpi ulnaris
-all radial nerve
ulnar deviation
= adduct
-flexor carpi ulnaris,
-extensor carpi ulnaris
radial deviation
= abduct
-flexor carpi radialis L+B
-extensor carpi radialis
-the styloid limits abduction
all joints b/t 8 carpals are:
what kind of joint is the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb?
saddle joint = allows mobility
MP joints
-"knuckle jts"
-permit ab/adduction, flexion, extension, some rotation
-condyloid jt (thumb is hinge joint)
IP thumb permits
flexion + extension
-flexor pollicis longus
-extensor pollicis longus
DIP of medial 4 flexed by
flexor digitorum profundus (PIP by both superficialis and profundus)
carpal tunnel made up of...
-flexor digitorum profundus
-flexor digitorum superficialis
-flexor pollicis longus
-median nerve
(9 flexors + nerve)
thenar muscles supplied by what nerve?
recurrent branch of median nerve (off median @ carpal tunnel)
what artery forms superficial palmar arterial arch?
-"bye bye" muscles
-I (index finger is median nerve, II-IV ulnar
-O+I all on tendons
interosseus muscles
-4 dorsal, 3 palmar
-dorsal abduct (DAB)
-palmar adduct (PAD)
-middle finger has 2 dorsal, no palmar; pinky doesnt need any
hyoid is at what C level
anterior triangle boundaries
superior= inferior border of mandible
inferior=manubrium of sternum (jugular notch)
posterior (hypotenuse)=SCM
anterior=imag line connecting chin to manubrium
what's in carotid sheath?
common carotid
vagus nerve (cranial nerve X)
internal jugular vein
where is a tracheostomy performed?
cricothyroid membrane
trachea and esophagus begin at:
the spinal accessory nerve innervates:
infrahyoid group includes:
superior belly of omohyoid
-swallowing and vocalization
suprahyhoid group
anterior belly of digastric (V trigeminal)
posterior belly of digastric (VII facial)
each carotid begins where?
thoracic cavity
4 branches of external carotid artery:
(internal has no branches)
starting from most distal, traveling superiorly:
1. superior thyroid artery
2. lingual artery
3. facial artery
4. occipital
2 sensory receptors at bifurcation of carotid:
1. carotid sinus-->baroreceptor, senses pressure
2. carotid body-->chemoreceptor,senses CO2 and O2 blood levels